Sec-leach ss-leach rleach esmr srpbcg table 2: Secure routing protocols comparison based on prevention of security attacks Secure Protocol Alter/Replay selective sinkhole sybil Wormhole hello outsider Node compromise. Sec-leach ss-leach rleach esmr srpbcg adversary drops the entire received packet, it behaves like a blackhole attack10. An adversary explicitly includes on the path of data flow to perform selective forwarding. 4.3 Sinkhole and Wormhole attack basically, in the both sinkhole and wormhole attacks10; the adversary tries to attract all the traffic from a particular area through a compromised node. Sinkhole attack mainly works by making a compromised node look attractive to the neighbor nodes to route the data packet and generally spoof, modify or drop the packet. In this way, sinkhole attack give birth to many attacks like; selective forwarding, blackhole, tempering the routing information etc. An adversary launch wormhole with two distant malicious nodes and try to attract the traffic by showing one hop distance to the sink. Wormhole attack is very difficult to detect because it uses out-of-bound channel to route packets.
Comsys - communication and Distributed Systems: guest
Freshness: Freshness implies that receiver receives the recent and fresh data and ensures that no adversary can replay the old data. This requirement is especially important when the wsn nodes use sharedkeys for message communication, where a potential adversary can launch a replay attack using the old key as the new key is being refreshed and propagated to red all the nodes in the wsn20. To achieve the freshness the mechanism like nonce or time stamp should add to each data packet. Attacks on routing protocol many sensor network routing protocols were very simple and not developed as security in mind, so the adversary can launch various attacks in the network. Mainly network layer protocol (i.e. Routing protocol) suffers from many attacks 10 like; spoofing or altering the route information, selective forwarding, sinkhole attack, wormhole attack, sybil attack, hello flood attack etc. 4.1 Spoofing, Altering or Replaying the route information An adversary can launch the routing information corruption by spoofing, altering or replying the routing information. By this an adversary can attracts or redirects the traffic, increases the latency, generate routing loops or creates false error10 etc. 4.2 Selective forwarding attack In the selective forwarding attack, malicious node may refuse to forward certain packet and simply drop. If an 147 3 Table 1: Secure routing Protocols analysis based on security goals Secure routing Protocol Confidentiality Integrity Freshness Authenticity availability. Srpsn lha-sp f-leach sleach sheer.
Integrity of the ilahi data can be maintain by the techniques like message digest and mac. Authenticity: Authentication is necessary for maintaining the network, coordinating with the sensor node and sending or receiving the information. An adversary can easily inject the messages in the network, so receiver should ensure that the received message is originated by the correct source20. Informally, data authenticity allows a receiver to verify that the data really sent by the authorized user. Authenticity can be maintained by the cryptography mechanism like mac. Availability: availability ensures that the services of a network should be available always even in presence of an internal or external attacks such as a denial of service attack (DoS). Different mechanisms have been proposed by the researches to achieve this goal20.
Further to reduce the energy consumption and prolong the lifetime of the network many hierarchical routing protocols have been proposed. Security goals in wsns in an ideal world, we ensure the security goal if every eligible node receives all the messages intended. In the presence of resourceful adversary, security goals guarantee the confidentiality, integrity, authenticity, availability and freshness of data. Confidentiality: Data rainbow should not leak by the sensor nodes to other network. While communicating the data in the network, no one can understood except intended recipient20. The standard way to keep the sensitive data secret is to use the cryptography technique, hence achieve the confidentiality. Integrity: Data should reach to the intended receiver without any alteration in the data. Data loss or damage can even occur due to the communication environment. The integrity mechanism should ensure that red no adversary can manipulate the communicated data20.
Further reduce the energy consumption of pegasis, ccs9 has been proposed. In ccs, the whole network is divided in co-centric circular tracks and each track presents a cluster. Track level has been assign to each track, depends upon the distance from the base-station. Data communication is done through tracks. Tsc5 protocol is the enhance version of ccs, by further dividing tracks into sectors. Threshold sensitive energy efficient sensor network protocol (teen)14, is a data-centric protocol designed for timecritical application. In teen, the transmission of the sensed data is depends upon threshold values, called Hard Threshold (HT) and Soft Threshold (st which is broadcasted. Apteen15 is the enhances version of teen and goal is to capturing both periodic data and time critical data. Apteen supports three different query types: historical, one-time and persistent query13.
Computer Engineering Department / Bogazici University
Leach includes distributed clustering and utilizes randomize rotation of cluster heads to evenly distribute the energy load in the network. It calculates a threshold value to elect the cluster head. Leach protocol is very useful for the applications, where constant monitoring is required. Tl-leach12 is the extension of the leach, where tl stands for Two-level. It utilizes two level of clustering where primary ch communicate with secondary ch in order to send the data, for better throughput.
Tl-leach form clusters based presentation on minimum distance of nodes to their corresponding ch, eecs24 extends this by dynamic sizing of clusters based on cluster distance from the base station. Ch election is based on the residual energy of the node. Power-efficient gathering in Sensor Information System (pegasis)11 is a near-optimal chain-based protocol. In pe- gasis, nodes need to communicate to its nearest neighbor and they propagate to the base-station. Unlike leach, pe- gasis avoids cluster formation and uses only one node in a chain to transmit to the base-station1. In this way it increase the lifetime of the network and allow only local communication for less bandwidth consumption in communication.
In many applications like military and battle field, data is important and have to maintain secrecy in data communication between sensor nodes and. In this paper we discuss, analyze and list the advantages and drawback of secure hierarchical routing Protocol techniques proposed till now. The rest of the paper is organised as follows. Section 2 describes some basic hierarchical routing protocols. Security 146 2 goals in wsns are listed in section.
Section 4 introduces different possible attacks on routing protocol. In section 5 verious secure routing protocols is covered. In section 6, we does analysis on different secure routing protocols. We concludes the paper in section hierarchical routing protocols hierarchical or cluster-based routing, originally proposed for wired network to enhance scalability and efficiency. In wsns, hierarchical routing techniques is used to enhance energy-efficiency and hence prolong the network lifetime. Reservation-based scheduling, collision avoidance, data aggregation by cluster head, uniform energy dissipation, fair allocation of channel and lower latency are some characteristics of hierarchical topology routing protocol1. Low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (leach)6 is one of the very first hierarchical routing protocol.
Ace bookbinding Home page of Product Information
Nowadays researchers are working towards the energy efficient routing protocol. Hierarchical routing protocols are the most energy efficient among rest of the protocols for wsns. In hierarchical routing protocol, network is divided into clusters and cluster head is assigned to each cluster. These cluster heads are higher energy nodes, which aggregate, process and transmit umum the information to the bs, while the lower energy nodes used to sense the targeted area and send the data. Hierarchical routing is an efficient way to reduce the total energy consumption of the network. Data aggregation and processing in the ch greatly reduce total number of sent messages to the. Actually, the goal of developing hierarchical routing protocol is to minimize the network traffic towards the base station. Generally, security issue in hierarchical routing protocol have not given much attention, since most of the routing protocol in wsns have not been developed with security in mind. Many hierarchical routing protocols have been developed, where energy efficiency is the main goal.
habitat monitoring and nuclear firm monitoring are the challenging application of the wsns. Main task of the sensor node is to sense data and send it to the base station in multi hop environment for this routing path is essential. For computing the routing path from the source node to the base station there is huge number of proposed routing protocols exist. Routing protocols in wsns mainly classified in two categories1: Network Structure and Protocol Operation. Network Structure is further classified into Flat, hierarchical and Location based routing. Protocol Operation is further classified into negotiation, multi-path, query, qos and Coherent based routing. All these routing protocols are very useful for routing path computation, but it highly affect the wsns performance. So the development of the routing protocol should be for balancing the load among the sensor nodes and prolonging the network lifetime.
Further we analyze and compare secure hierarchical routing protocols based on various criteria. Categories and Subject Descriptors.2 Computer-Communication Networks: Data communications, security and protection;.2.2 Computer-Communication Networks: Network Protocols routing protocols. Keywords Wireless sensor network, hierarchical (cluster-based) routing protocol, routing security. Introduction the growth of micro devices, small memory chip and wireless communication technology invented the tiny sensor device called sensor node. Sensor node constrained with the limited battery power, small memory, less computation and communication capability. These sensor nodes are responsible for sensing the data from the environment and sending the processed data to the base station though intermediate permission to make digital or hard vertebrae copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. Icccs 11 February 12-14, 2011, rourkela, odisha, india copyright c 2011 acm /11/02. These self-configurable sensor nodes form a multi hop and collaborative network called Wireless Sensor Network.
Constructing Angles of 60, 120, 30 and
1 a survey on Secure hierarchical routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks Suraj Sharma and Sanjay kumar Jena department of Computer Science and Engineering National Institute of Technology rourkela, odisha, india abstract wsns usually deployed in the targeted area to monitor or sense the environment. To relay the data intermediate nodes communicate together, select appropriate metamorphosis routing path and transmit data towards the base station. Routing path selection depends on the routing protocol of the network. Base station should receive unaltered and fresh data. To fulfill this requirement, routing protocol should be energy-efficient and secure. Hierarchical or clusterbase routing protocol for wsns is the most energy-efficient among other routing protocols. In this paper, we study different hierarchical routing technique for wsns.