Fourth, public esteem for schools would increase. People would stop regarding them as way stations for adolescents and start thinking of them as institutions for educating America's youth. Fifth, elementary schools would change because students would find out early they had better learn something or risk flunking out later. Elementary teachers would no longer have to pass their failures on to junior high and high school. Sixth, the cost of enforcing compulsory education would be eliminated. Despite enforcement efforts, nearly 15 percent of the school-age children in our largest cities are almost permanently absent from school. Communities could use these savings to support institutions to deal with young people not in school. If, in the long run, these institutions prove more costly, at least we would not confuse their mission with that of schools.
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Quite the contrary, these students know they will be passed from grade to grade until they are old enough to quit or until, as is more likely, they receive a high school diploma. At the point when students could legally quit, most choose to remain since they know they are likely to be allowed to graduate whether they do acceptable work or not. Abolition of archaic attendance laws would produce enormous dividends. First, it would alert everyone that school is a serious place where one goes to learn. Schools are neither day-care centers nor indoor street corners. Young people who resist learning should stay away; indeed, an end statement to compulsory schooling would require them to stay away. Second, students opposed to learning would not be able to pollute the educational atmosphere for those who want to learn. Teachers could stop policing recalcitrant students and start educating. Third, grades would show what they are supposed to: how well a student is learning. Parents could again read report cards and know if their children were making progress.
Private schools have no such problem. They can fail or dismiss students, knowing such students can attend public school. Without compulsory attendance, public schools would be freer to oust students whose academic or personal behavior undermines the educational mission of the institution. Has not the noble experiment of a formal education for everyone failed? While story we pay homage to the homily, "you can lead a horse to water but you can't make him drink we have pretended it is not true in education. Ask high school teachers if recalcitrant students learn anything of value. Ask teachers if these students do any homework.
The solution to this problem is simple: Abolish compulsory-attendance laws and allow only those who are committed to getting an water education to attend. This will not end public education. Contrary to conventional belief, legislators enacted compulsory-attendance laws to legalize what already existed. William Landes and Lewis Solomon, economists, found little evidence that mandatory-attendance laws increased the number of children in school. They found, too, that school systems have never effectively enforced such laws, usually because of the expense involved. There is no contradiction between the assertion that compulsory attendance has had little effect on the number of children attending school and the argument that repeal would be a positive step toward reviews improving education. Most parents want a high school education for their children. Unfortunately, compulsory attendance hampers the ability of public school officials to enforce legitimate educational and disciplinary policies and thereby make the education a good one.
However, we acknowledge that plagiarism is a difficult term to define; that its definition may be contextually sensitive; and that not all instances of plagiarism are created equal—that is, there are varying degrees of egregiousness for different cases of plagiarism. The following is a sample essay you can practice"ng, paraphrasing, and summarizing. Examples of each task are provided at the end of the essay for further reference. Here is the citation for Sipher's essay: Sipher, roger. So that Nobody has to go to School If They don't Want. The new York times, 19 Dec. So that Nobody has to go to school If They don't Want to by roger Sipher A decline in standardized test scores is but the most recent indicator that American education is in trouble. One reason for the crisis is that present mandatory-attendance laws force many to attend school who have no wish to be there. Such children have little desire to learn and are so antagonistic to school that neither they nor more highly motivated students receive the quality education that is the birthright of every American.
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Some examples to compare, the original passage: Students frequently overuse direct"tion in taking notes, and as a result they overuse"tions in the final research paper. Probably only about 10 of your final manuscript should appear as directly"d matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. 2nd., 1976,. A legitimate paraphrase: In research papers, students often" excessively, failing to keep"d material down to a desirable level.
Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47). An acceptable summary: Students should take just a few notes list in direct"tion from sources to help minimize the amount of"d material in a research paper (Lester 46-47). A plagiarized version: Students often use too many direct"tions when they take notes, resulting in too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10 of the final copy kannada should consist of directly"d material. So it is important to limit the amount of source material copied while taking notes. A note about plagiarism: This example has been classed as plagiarism, in part, because of its failure to deploy any citation. Plagiarism is a serious offense in the academic world.
Your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form. One legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to borrow from a source. A more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single main idea. Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because. It is better than"ng information from an undistinguished passage. It helps you control the temptation to" too much.
The mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full meaning of the original. 6 Steps to Effective paraphrasing, reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning. Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a note card. Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later how you envision using this material. At the top of the note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase. Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form. Use"tion marks to identify any unique term or phraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source. Record the source (including the page) on your note card so that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into your paper.
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Paraphrase important supporting points that come up in the essay. Consider any words, phrases, or brief passages that you believe should be"d directly. There are several ways to integrate"tions into your text. Often, a short"tion works well when integrated into a sentence. Longer"tions can stand alone. Remember that"ng should be done only sparingly; be sure that you have a good reason to include a direct"tion when you decide to. You'll find guidelines for citing sources and punctuating citations at our documentation guide pages. Paraphrasing is one way to use a text in your own writing without directly"ng source material. Anytime you are taking information from a source that is not your own, you need to specify where you got that information.
Expand the breadth or depth of your writing. Writers frequently intertwine summaries, paraphrases, and"tions. As part of a summary of an article, a chapter, or a book, a writer might include paraphrases of various key points blended with"tions of striking or suggestive phrases as in the following example: In his famous and influential work. The Interpretation of Dreams, sigmund Freud argues that dreams are the "royal road to the unconscious" (page expressing in coded imagery the dreamer's unfulfilled wishes through a process known as the "dream-work" (page. According to Freud, actual but unacceptable desires are censored internally and subjected to coding through layers of condensation and displacement before emerging in a kind of rebus puzzle in the dream itself (page. How to use"tions, paraphrases, and summaries. Practice summarizing the essay found here, using paraphrases and"tions as you. It might be helpful to follow these steps: read the entire text, noting the key points and main ideas. Summarize in your own words what the single main idea of the essay.
to your writing. Refer to work that leads up to the work you are now doing. Give examples of several points of view on a subject. Call attention to a position that you wish to agree or disagree with. Highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage by"ng the original. Distance yourself from the original by"ng it in order to cue readers that the words are not your own.
quot;tions must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author. Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own shortage words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly. Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source.
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Play and learn.1 download by, discovery Educational Software, the fun way to ilahi learn English A collection of games designed to put fun into learning English. With real-life situations and options to suit different abilities. The topics covered are numbers, days, months, dates, seasons, parts of the body, colours, clothes, weather, family relationships, shops and shopping, asking and giving directions, occupations, geography of Great Britain and its neighbours, school subjects and prepositions. Type: Shareware; Released: 10/29/2015; Filesize:.7 MB; Price: usd.00, gbp 10; Platforms: Windows xp, windows Vista, tags: Additional, an, as, eal, efl, english, esl, foreign, language, second. This handout is intended to help you become more comfortable with the uses of and distinctions among"tions, paraphrases, and summaries. This handout compares and contrasts the three terms, gives some pointers, and includes a short excerpt that you can use to practice these skills. What are the differences among"ng, paraphrasing, and summarizing? These three ways of incorporating other writers' work into your own writing differ according to the closeness of your writing to the source writing.