Singing to the jinas: jain laywomen, mandal Singing, and the negotiations of jain devotion. a b Padmanabh. Gender and Salvation: jaina debates on the Spiritual Liberation of Women. University of California press. max Muller, history of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, oxford University Press, pages 150152 macGregor, geddes (1989). Dictionary of Religion and Philosophy (1st.).
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There are many important or influential Mahayana texts, such as the Platform Sutra and the lotus Sutra, that are called sutras despite being attributed to much later authors. Citation needed jainism edit In the jain tradition, sutras are an important genre of "fixed text which used to be memorized. 52 The kalpa sūtra is, for example, a jain text with scripture of monastic rules, 53 as well as the biographies of the jain Tirthankaras. 54 Many sutras discuss all aspects of ascetic and lay life in less jainism. Various ancient sutras particularly from the early 1st millennium ce, for example, states. Whitney kelting, recommend " bhakti as devotionalism is a central part of a jain practice". 9 The surviving scriptures of jaina tradition, such as the Acaranga sutra ( Agamas ) exist in sutra format, 10 as is the tattvartha sutra a sanskrit text accepted by all four jainism sects as the most authoritative philosophical text that completely summarizes the foundations. 55 56 see also edit "sutra". Retrieved november 8, 2017. a b c d e f g h i monier Williams, sanskrit English Dictionary, oxford University Press, Entry for sutra, page 1241 a b c d e f g h i m winternitz (2010 Reprint a history of Indian Literature, volume 1, motilal Banarsidass, isbn. The yoga sutra of Patanjali: a biography.
Versions of Chanakya niti sutras have been found in Sri lanka and myanmar. 49 The more comprehensive work of Chanakya, the Arthashastra is itself composed in many parts, in sutra style, with the first Sutra of the ancient book acknowledging that it is a compilation of Artha -knowledge from previous scholars. 50 Kama-sutras moksha-sutras Shiva-sutras Narada Bhakti sutra buddhism edit further information: Buddhist texts and List of suttas Some scholars consider that the buddhist use of sutra is a faulty sanskritization of the Prakrit or Pali word sutta and that the latter actually represented Sanskrit sūkta. 51 The early buddhist sutras do driver not present the aphoristic, nearly cryptic nature of the hindu sutras even though they also have been designed for mnemonic purposes in an oral tradition. On the contrary, they are most often lengthy, with many repetitions which serve the mnemonic purpose of the audience. Citation needed They share the character of sermons of "good news" with the jaina sutras, whose original name of sūya in Ardha magadhi can derive from Sanskrit sūkta, but hardly from sutra. Citation needed In Buddhism, sutra or sutta refers mostly to canonical scriptures. Citation needed In Chinese, these are known as ( pinyin : jīng ). These teachings are assembled in part of the Tripiṭaka which is called the sutta pitaka.
45 46 These sutras are divided into five books, with two chapters in each book. 43 The first book is structured as a general introduction and table of contents of sixteen categories of knowledge. 43 book two is about pramana (epistemology book three is about prameya or the objects of knowledge, and the text discusses the nature of knowledge in remaining books. 43 reality is truth ( prāma, foundation of correct knowledge and what is true is so, irrespective of whether we know it is, or are aware of that truth. akṣapada gautama in nyaya sutra, translated by jeaneane d fowler 47 Mimamsa sutras - is the foundational text of the mimamsa school of Hinduism, authored by jaimini, and it emphasizes the early part of the vedas, that is rituals and religious works as means. 48 The school emphasized precision in the selection of words, construction of sentences, developed rules for hermeneutics of language and any text, adopted and then refined principles of logic from the nyaya school, and developed extensive rules for epistemology. 48 An atheistic school that supported external Vedic sacrifices and rituals, its Mimamsa sutra contains twelve chapters with nearly 2700 sutras. 48 Dharma-sutras - of Āpastamba, gautama, baudhāyana, and Vāsiṣṭha Artha-sutras - the niti sutras of Chanakya and Somadeva are treatises on governance, law, economics, and politics.
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Without explanation: soul is, for there is no proof that it is not. (Sutra 1, book 6) This different from body, because paper heterogeneous. (Sutra 2, book 6) Also because it is expressed by means of the sixth. (Sutra 3, book 6) With Vijnanabhiksu's explanatory bhasya filled in: soul is, for there is no proof that it is not, since we are aware of "I think because there is no evidence to defeat this. Therefore all that is to be done is to discriminate it from things in general. (Sutra 1, book 6) This soul is different from the body because of heterogeneous or complete difference between the two.
(Sutra 2, book 6) Also because it, the soul, is expressed by means of the sixth case, for the learned express it by the possessive case in such examples as 'this is my body 'this my understanding for the possessive case would be unaccountable. (Sutra 3, book 6) kapila in Samkhya sutra, translated by james Robert Ballantyne 39 40 vaisheshika sutra - is the foundational text of the vaisheshika school of Hinduism, dated to between 4th-century bce to 1st-century bce, authored by kanada. 41 With 370 sutras, it aphoristically teaches non-theistic naturalism, epistemology, and its metaphysics. The first two sutras of the text expand as, "Now an explanation of Dharma ; The means to prosperity and salvation is Dharma." 41 42 nyaya sutras is an ancient text of nyaya school of Hindu philosophy composed by akṣapada gautama, sometime between 6th-century bce. 43 44 It is notable for focusing on knowledge and logic, and making no mention of Vedic rituals. 43 The text includes 528 aphoristic sutras, about rules of reason, logic, epistemology, and metaphysics.
Taittiriya aranyaka, for example in book 7, embeds sutras for accurate pronunciation after the terse phrases "On Letters "On Accents "On quantity "On Delivery and "On Euphonic Laws". 30 The fourth and often the last layer of philosophical, speculative text in the vedas, the Upanishads, too have embedded sutras such as those found in the taittiriya upanishad. 30 The compendium of ancient Vedic sutra literature that has survived, in full or fragments, includes the kalpa sutras, smarta sutras, srauta sutras, dharma sutras, grhya sutras, and Sulba sutras. 31 Other fields for which ancient sutras are known include etymology, phonetics, and grammar. Post-vedic sutras edit Example of sutras from Vedanta sutra.
— brahma sutra.5 32 33 Some examples of sutra texts in various schools of Hindu philosophy include: Brahma sutras (or Vedanta sutra) a sanskrit text, composed by badarayana, likely sometime between 200 bce to 200. 34 The text contains 555 sutras in four chapters that summarize the philosophical and spiritual ideas in the Upanishads. 35 It is one of the foundational texts of the vedānta school of Hindu philosophy. 35 Yoga sutras contains 196 sutras on Yoga including the eight limbs and meditation. The yoga sutras were compiled around 400 ce by patanjali, taking materials about yoga from older traditions. 36 The text has been highly influential on Indian culture and spiritual traditions, and it is among the most translated ancient Indian text in the medieval era, having been translated into about forty Indian languages. 37 Samkhya sutra is a collection of major Sanskrit texts of the samkhya school of Hindu philosophy, including the sutras on dualism of Kapila. 38 It consists of six books with 526 sutras.
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— max Muller, history of Ancient Sanskrit Literature 7 Hinduism edit further information: Hindu texts Some of the earliest surviving specimen of sutras of Hinduism are found in the Anupada sutras and Nidana sutras. 27 The former distills the epistemic debate whether Sruti or Smriti or neither must be considered the more reliable source of knowledge, 28 while the latter distills the rules of musical meters for Samaveda chants and songs. 29 A larger collection of ancient sutra literature in Hinduism corresponds to the six true Vedangas, or six limbs of the vedas. 5 These are six subjects that were called in the vedas as necessary for complete mastery of the vedas. The six subjects with their own sutras were "pronunciation ( Shiksha meter ( Chandas grammar ( vyakarana explanation of words ( Nirukta time keeping through astronomy ( jyotisha and ceremonial rituals (Kalpa). 5 The first two, states Max Muller, were considered in the vedic era to be necessary for reading the veda, the second two for understanding it, and the last two for deploying the vedic knowledge at yajnas (fire rituals). 5 The sutras corresponding to these are embedded inside the Brahmana and Aranyaka layers of the vedas.
6 They grow in the vedangas, such as the Shrauta sutras and Kalpa sutras. 2 These were designed so that they can be easily communicated from a teacher to student, memorized by the recipient for discussion or the self-study or as reference. 3 A sutra by itself is condensed shorthand, and the threads of syllable are difficult to decipher or understand, without associated scholarly Bhasya or deciphering commentary that fills in the " woof ". 21 22 The oldest manuscripts that have survived into the modern era, that contain extensive sutras, are part of the vedas dated to be from the late 2nd millennium bce through mid 1st-millennium bce. 23 The aitareya aranyaka for example, states Winternitz, is primarily a collection of sutras. 6 Their use and ancient roots are attested by sutras being mentioned in larger genre of ancient non-Vedic Hindu literature called Gatha, narashansi, itihasa, and Akhyana (songs, legends, epics, and stories). 24 In the history of Indian literature, large compilations of sutras, in diverse fields of knowledge, have been traced to the period from 600 bce to 200 bce (mostly after Buddha and Mahavira and this has been called the "sutras period". 24 25 This period followed the more ancient Chhandas period, mantra period and Brahmana period. 26 (The ancient) Indian pupil learnt these sutras of grammar, philosophy or theology by the same mechanical method which fixes in our (modern era) minds the alphabet and the multiplication table.
to sūci (Sanskrit: ) meaning "needle, list 13 and sūnā (Sanskrit: ) meaning "woven". 2 In the context of literature, sūtra means a distilled collection of syllables and words, any form or manual of "aphorism, rule, direction" hanging together like threads with which the teachings of ritual, philosophy, grammar, or any field of knowledge can be woven. 2 3 A sūtra is any short rule, states Moriz winternitz, in Indian literature; it is "a theorem condensed in few words". 3 A collection of sūtras becomes a text, and this is also called sūtra (often capitalized in Western literature). 2 3 A sūtra is different from other components such as Shlokas, anuvyakhayas and vyakhyas found in ancient Indian literature. 14 A sūtra is a condensed rule which succinctly states the message, 15 while a shloka is a verse that conveys the complete message and is structured to certain rules of musical meter, 16 17 a anuvyakhaya is an explanation of the reviewed text, while. 14 18 History edit sutra known from Vedic era 19 Veda sutras Rigveda Asvalayana sutra sankhayana sutra saunaka sutra samaveda latyayana sutra drahyayana sutra nidana sutra pushpa sutra anustotra sutra 20 Yajurveda manava sutra bharadvaja sutra vadhuna sutra vaikhanasa sutra laugakshi sutra maitra sutra katha.
2 3, the oldest sutras of Hinduism are found in the. Brahmana and Aranyaka layers of the vedas. 5 6 every school of Hindu philosophy, vedic guides for rites of passage, various fields of arts, law, and social ethics developed respective sutras, which helped teach and transmit ideas from one generation to the next. 4 7 8 In Buddhism, sutras, also known as suttas, are canonical scriptures, many of which are regarded as records of the oral teachings of gautama buddha. The pali form of the word, sutta, is used exclusively essay to refer to the scriptures of the early pali canon, the only texts recognized by Theravada buddhism as canonical. Citation needed In jainism, sutras also known as suyas are canonical sermons of Mahavira contained in the jain Agamas as well as some later (post-canonical) normative texts. 9 10 Contents Etymology edit a 17th-century birch bark manuscript of ancient Panini sutra, a treatise on grammar, 11 found in Kashmir.
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This article is about texts in Hinduism, buddhism, and jainism. For other uses, see. A sutra ( /sutrə/ ; Sanskrit: iast : sūtra ; Pali : sutta ) is a moliere religious discourse (teaching) in text form originating from the spiritual traditions. India, particularly, hinduism, buddhism, and, jainism. 1 2 3, a manuscript page from, kalpa sūtra (Jainism). The term sutra may refer to a single aphorism, a collection of aphorisms or a more lengthy prose teaching. 2, sutras are considered a genre of ancient and medieval Indian texts. 3, in, hinduism, sutras are a distinct type of literary composition, a compilation of short aphoristic statements. 3 4, each sutra is any short rule, like a theorem distilled into few words or syllables, around which teachings of ritual, philosophy, grammar, or any field of knowledge can be woven.