However, the Greek cities were given freedom and several substantial rights. Ephesus became, for a short time, self-governing. When Mithridates was defeated in the first Mithridatic War by the roman consul Lucius Cornelius Sulla, ephesus came back under Roman rule in 86 BC. Sulla imposed a huge indemnity, along with five years of back taxes, which left Asian cities heavily in debt for a long time to come. 28 King Ptolemy xii auletes of Egypt retired to Ephesus in 57 bc, passing his time in the sanctuary of the temple of Artemis when he failed to get restoration of his throne from the roman senate. 29 Mark Antony was welcomed by Ephesus for periods when he was proconsul 30 and in 33 bc with Cleopatra when he gathered his fleet of 800 ships before the battle of Actium with Octavius. 31 When Augustus became emperor in 27 bc, the most important change was when he made Ephesus the capital of proconsular Asia (which covered western Asia minor) instead of Pergamum.
Apostle paul: a polite Bribe: Robert Orlando, gerd
Due to ancient and subsequent deforestation, overgrazing (mostly by goat herds erosion and soil degradation the resume turkey coastline is now 34 km (22 mi) away from the ancient Greek site with sediments filling the plain and the mediterranean sea. In the background: muddy remains of the former harbour, bare hill ridges without rich soils and woods, a maquis shrubland remaining. Stone carving of the goddess nike ephesus, as part of the kingdom of Pergamon, became a subject of the roman Republic in 129bc after the revolt of Eumenes iii was suppressed. The city felt Roman influence at once; taxes rose considerably, and the treasures of the city were systematically plundered. Hence in 88 bc ephesus welcomed Archelaus, a general of Mithridates the Great, king of Pontus, when he conquered Asia (the roman name for western Asia minor). From Ephesus, mithridates ordered every roman citizen in the province to be killed which led to the Asiatic Vespers, the slaughter of 80,000 Roman citizens in Asia, or any person who spoke with a latin accent. Many had lived in Ephesus, and statues and monument of Roman citizens in Ephesus were also destroyed. But when they saw how badly the people of Chios had been treated by zenobius, a general of Mithridates, they refused entry to his army. Zenobius was invited into the city to visit villanova Philopoemen, the father of Monime, the favourite wife of Mithridates, and the overseer of Ephesus. As the people expected nothing good of him, they threw him into prison and murdered him. Mithridates took revenge and inflicted terrible punishments.
The seleucid king Antiochus iii plan the Great tried to regain the Greek cities of Asia minor and recaptured Ephesus in 196 BC but he then came into conflict with Rome. After a series of battles, he was defeated by Scipio asiaticus at the battle of Magnesia in 190 BC. As a result of the subsequent Treaty of Apamea, ephesus came under the rule of Eumenes ii, the Attalid king of Pergamon, (ruled 197159 BC). When his grandson Attalus iii died in 133 BC without male children of his own, he left his kingdom to the roman Republic, on condition that the city of Pergamon is kept free and autonomous. Roman period edit The 'terrace houses' at Ephesus, showing how the wealthy lived during the roman period. Eventually the harbour became silted up, and the city lost its natural resources. Theater and harbour street. Like the ancient city miletus nearby, in antiquity the city possessed a natural harbour at the end of the street. Close Up Ephesos amphitheatre with harbour street.
Lysimachus forced the people to move from the ancient settlement around the temple of Artemis to the present site two kilometres (1.2 miles) away, when as a last resort the king flooded the old city by blocking the sewers. 25 The new settlement was officially called Arsinoea ( Ancient Greek : ρσινόεια 26 or ρσινοα 27 ) after the king's second wife, arsinoe ii of Egypt. After Lysimachus had destroyed the nearby cities of Lebedos and Colophon in 292 bc, he relocated their inhabitants to the new city. Ephesus revolted after the treacherous death of Agathocles, giving the hellenistic king of Syria and Mesopotamia seleucus i nicator an opportunity for removing and killing Lysimachus, his last rival, at the battle of Corupedium in 281 BC. After the death of Lysimachus the town again was named Ephesus. Thus Ephesus became part of the seleucid Empire. After the murder of king Antiochus ii theos and his Egyptian wife, pharaoh table Ptolemy iii invaded the seleucid Empire and the Egyptian fleet swept the coast of Asia minor. Ephesus came under Egyptian rule between 263 and 197 BC.
Hellenistic period edit When Alexander the Great defeated the persian forces at the battle of Granicus in 334 bc, the Greek cities of Asia minor were liberated. The pro-persian tyrant Syrpax and his family were stoned to death, and Alexander was greeted warmly when he entered Ephesus in triumph. When Alexander saw that the temple of Artemis was not yet finished, he proposed to finance it and have his name inscribed on the front. But the inhabitants of Ephesus demurred, claiming that it was not fitting for one god to build a temple to another. After Alexander's death in 323 bc, ephesus in 290 BC came under the rule of one of Alexander's generals, lysimachus. As the river cayster (Grk. Name Κάϋστρος) silted up the old harbour, the resulting marshes caused malaria and many deaths among the inhabitants.
Kip heitzig's teaching library
There are numerous sites to suggest the movement of a settlement between the Bronze age and the roman period, but the silting up of the natural harbours as well as the movement of the kayster river meant that the location never remained the same. Classical period edit Statue of Artemis of Ephesus Ephesus continued to prosper, but when taxes were raised under Cambyses ii and Darius, the Ephesians participated in the ionian revolt against Persian rule in the battle of Ephesus (498 BC), an event which instigated the Greco-persian wars. In 479 bc, the ionians, together with Athens, were able to oust the persians from the shores of Asia minor. In 478 bc, the ionian cities with Athens entered into the delian league against the persians. Ephesus did not contribute ships but gave financial support.
During the peloponnesian War, ephesus was first allied to Athens citation needed but in a later anterolisthesis phase, called the decelean War, or the ionian War, sided with Sparta, which also had received the support of the persians. As empathy a result, rule over the cities of Ionia was ceded again to persia. These wars did not greatly affect daily life in Ephesus. The Ephesians were surprisingly modern in their social relations: citation needed they allowed strangers to integrate and education was valued. In later times, Pliny the Elder mentioned having seen at Ephesus a representation of the goddess diana by timarata, the daughter of a painter. Citation needed In 356 BC the temple of Artemis was burnt down, according to legend, by a lunatic called Herostratus. The inhabitants of Ephesus at once set about restoring the temple and even planned a larger and grander one than the original.
Following a revolt by the people, ephesus was ruled by a council. The city prospered again under a new rule, producing a number of important historical figures such as the elegiac poet Callinus 22 and the iambic poet Hipponax, the philosopher Heraclitus, the great painter Parrhasius and later the grammarian Zenodotos and physicians Soranus and Rufus. Electrum coin from Ephesus, 620-600. Obverse: Forepart of stag. Reverse: Square incuse punch. About 560 bc, ephesus was conquered by the lydians under king Croesus, who, though a harsh ruler, treated the inhabitants with respect and even became the main contributor to the reconstruction of the temple of Artemis.
23 His signature has been found on the base of one of the columns of the temple (now on display in the British Museum ). Croesus made the populations of the different settlements around Ephesus regroup ( synoikismos ) in the vicinity of the temple of Artemis, enlarging the city. Later in the same century, the lydians under Croesus invaded Persia. The ionians refused a peace offer from Cyrus the Great, siding with the lydians instead. After the persians defeated Croesus, the ionians offered to make peace, but Cyrus insisted that they surrender and become part of the empire. 24 They were defeated by the persian army commander Harpagos in 547 BC. The persians then incorporated the Greek cities of Asia minor into the Achaemenid Empire. Those cities were then ruled by satraps. Ephesus has intrigued archaeologists because for the Archaic Period there is no definite location for the settlement.
Paul the Preacher: Discourses and Speeches in Acts
20 Androklos and his dog are depicted on the hadrian temple frieze, dating from the 2nd century. Later, Greek historians such as pausanias, strabo and Herodotos and the poet water Kallinos reassigned the city's mythological foundation to Ephos, queen of the Amazons. The Greek goddess Artemis and the great Anatolian goddess Kybele were identified together as Artemis of Ephesus. The many-breasted "Lady of Ephesus identified with Artemis, was venerated in the temple of Artemis, one of the seven Wonders of the world and the largest building of the ancient world according to pausanias (4.31.8). Pausanias mentions that the temple was built by Ephesus, son of the river god caystrus, 21 before the arrival of the ionians. Of this structure, scarcely a trace remains. Archaic period edit Street scene at the archeological excavations at Ephesus. About 650 bc, ephesus was attacked by the cimmerians who razed the city, including the temple of Artemis. After the cimmerians had been driven away, the city was ruled by a series of tyrants.
Scholars believe that Ephesus was founded on the settlement of Apasa (or Abasa a bronze age city noted in 14th century bc hittite sources as being under the rule of the Ahhiyawans, most probably the name of the Achaeans used in Hittite sources. The names seem to mean the same in Hittite and Greek 17, and recent inscriptions seem to pinpoint the places in the hittite record. 18 19 Period of Greek migrations edit Ephesus was founded as an Attic-Ionian colony in the 10th century bc on a hill (now known as the ayasuluk hill three kilometers (1.9 miles) from the centre of ancient Ephesus (as attested by excavations at the seljuk. The mythical founder of the city was a prince of Athens named Androklos, who had to leave his country after the death of his father, king Kodros. According to the legend, he founded Ephesus on the place where the oracle of Delphi became reality a fish and a boar will show you the way. Androklos drove away most of the native carian and Lelegian inhabitants of the city and united his people with the remainder. He was a successful warrior, and as a king he was able to join the twelve cities of Ionia together into the ionian league. During his reign the city began to prosper. He died in a battle against the carians when he came to the aid of Priene, another city of the ionian league.
was slowly silted up by the küçükmenderes river. It was partially destroyed by an earthquake in 614 AD. The ruins of Ephesus are a favourite international and local tourist attraction, partly owing to their easy access from Adnan Menderes Airport or from the cruise ship port of kuşadası, some 30 km to the south. Contents History edit neolithic age edit The area surrounding Ephesus was already inhabited during the neolithic Age (about 6000 bc as was revealed by excavations at the nearby höyük (artificial mounds known as tells ) of Arvalya and cukurici. 10 11 Bronze age edit Excavations in recent years have unearthed settlements from the early Bronze age at ayasuluk hill. According to hittite sources, the capital of the kingdom of Arzawa (another independent state in Western and southern Anatolia/Asia minor 12 ) was Apasa (or Abasa ). Some scholars suggest that this is the later Greek ephesus. In 1954, a burial ground from the mycenaean era (15001400 BC) with ceramic pots was discovered close to the ruins of the basilica. 16 This was the period of the mycenaean Expansion when the Achaioi (as they were called by homer ) settled in Asia minor during the 14th and 13th centuries.
During the, classical Greek era it essays was one of the twelve cities of the. The city flourished after it came under the control of the. Roman Republic in 129. The city was famed for the nearby temple of Artemis (completed around 550 bc one of the seven Wonders of the Ancient World. 6 Among many other monumental buildings are the library of Celsus, and a theatre capable of holding 25,000 spectators. 7 Ephesus was one of the seven churches of Asia that are cited in the book of revelation. 8 The gospel of John may have been written here.
Prayers and devotions to Sts
This article is about the ancient city. For the town xmas in the southern United States, see. For homonyms of the turkish word Efes, see. Ephesus ( /ɛfəsəs/ ; 1, greek : φεσος, ephesos ; Turkish : Efes ; may ultimately derive from, hittite. Apasa ) was an ancient Greek city 2 3 on the coast of, ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day. Selçuk in zmir Province, turkey. It was built in the 10th century bc on the site of the former. Arzawan capital 4 5 by, attic and, ionian, greek colonists.