Sounder book review

Sounder : William h armstrong, james Barkley


sounder book review

M: sounder : Carl Lumbly, suzzanne

Agents monitored the conversations of the 7th Secretary-general of the United Nations Kofi Annan. Agents gathered "detailed biometric information" on the 8th Secretary-general of the United Nations, ban ki-moon. 61 62 In the early 1990s, the. National Security Agency intercepted the communications between the european aerospace company airbus and the saudi Arabian national airline. In 1994, airbus lost a 6 billion contract with saudi Arabia after the nsa, acting as a whistleblower, reported that Airbus officials had been bribing saudi officials to secure the contract. 63 As a result, the American aerospace company McDonnell douglas (now part of boeing ) won the multibillion-dollar contract instead of Airbus. 64 The American defense contractor raytheon won a us1.3 billion contract with the government of Brazil to monitor the Amazon rainforest after the.

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55 In 2001, the temporary committee on the echelon interception System recommended to the european Parliament that citizens of member states routinely use cryptography in their communications to protect their privacy, because economic espionage with essay echelon has been conducted by the. 7 American author James paper Bamford provides an alternative view, highlighting that legislation prohibits the use of intercepted communications for commercial purposes, although he does not elaborate on how intercepted communications are used as part of an all-source intelligence process. In its report, the committee of the european Parliament stated categorically that the Echelon network was being used to intercept not only military communications, but also private and business ones. In its epigraph to the report, the parliamentary committee"d juvenal, " Sed quis custodiet ipsos custodes." but who will watch the watchers. 7 James Bamford, in The guardian in may 2001, warned that if Echelon were to continue unchecked, it could become a "cyber secret police, without courts, juries, or the right to a defence". 56 Alleged examples of espionage conducted by the members of the " five eyes " include: On behalf of the British Prime minister Margaret Thatcher, the canadian Security Intelligence service of Canada spied on two British cabinet ministers in 1983. National Security Agency spied on and intercepted the phone calls of Princess diana right until she died in a paris car crash with Dodi fayed in 1997. The nsa currently holds 1,056 pages of classified information about Princess diana, which has been classified as top secret "because their disclosure could reasonably be expected to cause exceptionally grave damage to the national security. The damage would be caused not by the information about diana, but because the documents would disclose 'sources and methods'. 58 An official insisted that "the references to diana in intercepted conversations were 'incidental and she was never a 'target' of the nsa eavesdropping.

7 The role of satellites in point-to-point voice and data communications vertebrae has largely been supplanted by fiber optics. In 2006, 99 of the world's long-distance voice and data traffic was carried over optical-fiber. 52 The proportion of international communications accounted for by satellite links is said to have decreased substantially to an amount between.4 and 5 in Central Europe. 7 even in less-developed parts of the world, communications satellites are used largely for point-to-multipoint applications, such as video. 53 Thus, the majority of communications can no longer be intercepted by earth stations; they can only be collected by tapping cables and intercepting line-of-sight microwave signals, which is possible only to a limited extent. 7 Concerns edit British journalist Duncan Campbell and New zealand journalist Nicky hager asserted in the 1990s that the United States was exploiting echelon traffic for industrial espionage, rather than military and diplomatic purposes. 51 Examples alleged by the journalists include the gear-less wind turbine technology designed by the german firm Enercon 7 54 and the speech technology developed by the belgian firm Lernout hauspie.

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20 In 1981, the gchq and the nsa started the construction of the first global wide area network (WAN). Soon after Australia, canada, and New zealand joined the echelon system. 20 The report thesis to the european Parliament of 2001 states: "If ukusa states operate listening stations in the relevant regions of the earth, short in principle they can intercept all telephone, fax, and data traffic transmitted via such satellites." 7 Most reports on echelon focus. Testimony before the european Parliament indicated that separate but similar uk-u. Systems are in place to monitor communication through undersea cables, microwave transmissions, and other lines. 51 The report to the european Parliament points out that interception of private communications by foreign intelligence services is not necessarily limited to the. Or British foreign intelligence services.

40 New zealand waihopai, blenheim ironsand 40 United Kingdom Bude, cornwall carboy 45 Cyprus ayios nikolaos Station sounder 49 Kenya nairobi scapel 42 Oman snick 42 History and context edit The ability to intercept communications depends on the medium used, be it radio, satellite, microwave. 7 During World War ii and through the 1950s, high-frequency short-wave radio was widely used for military and diplomatic communication 50 and could be intercepted at great distances. 7 The rise of geostationary communications satellites in the 1960s presented new possibilities for intercepting international communications. In 1964, plans for the establishment of the echelon network took off after dozens of countries agreed to establish the International Telecommunications Satellite Organisation (Intelsat which would own and operate a global constellation of communications satellites. 20 Equipment at the yakima research Station (YRS) in the early days of the echelon program Teletype operators at the yakima research Station (YRS) in the early days of the echelon program In 1966, the first Intelsat satellite was launched into orbit. From 1970 to 1971, the government Communications headquarters (gchq) of Britain began to operate a secret signal station at Morwenstow, near Bude in Cornwall, england. The station intercepted satellite communications over the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Soon afterwards, the. National Security Agency (NSA) built a second signal station at yakima, near seattle, for the interception of satellite communications over the pacific Ocean.

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54 ff) 7 listed the following ground stations as likely to have, or to have had, a role in intercepting transmissions from telecommunications satellites: Hong Kong (since closed) Australian Defence satellite communications Station ( Geraldton, western Australia ) raf menwith Hill ( Yorkshire,. K.) Map (reportedly the largest Echelon facility) 30 Misawa air Base (Japan) Map gchq bude, formerly known as gchq cso morwenstow ( Cornwall,. K.) Map Pine gap ( Northern Territory, australia close to Alice Springs ) Map Sugar Grove ( West Virginia,. S.) Map (since closed) yakima Training Center ( Washington,. S.) Map (since closed) gcsb waihopai (New zealand) 31 gcsb tangimoana (New zealand) 31 cfs leitrim (Ontario, canada) 32 teufelsberg (Berlin, germany) (closed 1992) 33 responsible for listening in to the eastern Bloc. 34 Other potentially related stations edit The following stations are listed in the ep report (p. .

57 ff) as ones whose roles "cannot be clearly established ayios nikolaos ( British sovereign Base area of Dhekelia, cyprus. K.) Gibraltar (U.K.) diego garcia (U.K.) Bad Aibling Station ( Bad Aibling, germany. S.) Buckley air Force base ( Aurora, colorado ) Fort Gordon ( georgia,. S.) cfb gander ( Newfoundland labrador, canada) citation needed guam (Pacific resume Ocean,. S.) Kunia regional sigint operations Center (Hawaii,. S.) Lackland Air Force base, medina Annex ( San Antonio, texas) raf edzell (Scotland) citation needed raf boulmer (England) citation needed list of intercept stations according to Edward Snowden 's documents Operated by the United States country location Operator(s) Codename Brazil Brasília, federal District scs.

According to The new York times, the echelon system has been "shrouded in such secrecy that its very existence has been difficult to prove." Critics said the echelon system emerged from the cold War as a "Big Brother without a cause". 24 European Parliament investigation (20002001) edit The new zealand journalist Nicky hager, who testified before the european Parliament and provided specific details about the echelon surveillance system 25 The program's capabilities and political implications were investigated by a committee of the european Parliament during. It was chaired by the portuguese politician Carlos coelho, who was in charge of supervising investigations throughout 20In may 2001, as the committee finalised its report on the echelon system, a delegation travelled to washington,. To attend meetings with. Officials from the following agencies and departments: All meetings were cancelled by the. Government and the committee was forced to end its trip prematurely.


26 According to a bbc correspondent in may 2001, "The us government still refuses to admit that Echelon even exists.", the temporary committee on the echelon interception System released its final report. 27 On 5 September 2001, the european Parliament voted to accept the committee's report. 28 The european Parliament stated in its report that the term echelon is used in a number of contexts, but that the evidence presented indicates that it was the name for a signals intelligence collection system. The report concludes that, on the basis of information presented, echelon was capable of interception and content inspection of telephone calls, fax, e-mail and other data traffic globally through the interception of communication bearers including satellite transmission, public switched telephone networks (which once carried most. 7 Confirmation of echelon (2015) edit Two internal nsa newsletters from January 2011 and July 2012, published as part of the Snowden -revelations by the website The Intercept on, for the first time confirmed that nsa used the codeword echelon and provided some details about. Frosting had two sub-programs: 29 transient: for intercepting soviet satellite transmissions, and echelon: for intercepting Intelsat satellite transmissions. Organization edit The ukusa intelligence community was assessed by the european Parliament (EP) in 2000 to include the signals intelligence agencies of each of the member states: The ep report concluded that it seemed likely that echelon is a method of sorting captured signal traffic. 7 likely satellite intercept stations edit In 2001, the ep report (p. .

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17 In thesis 1996, a detailed description of echelon was provided by new zealand journalist Nicky hager in resume his 1996 book secret Power: New zealand's Role in the International Spy network. 18 Two years later, hager's book was cited by the european Parliament in a report titled "An Appraisal of the technology of Political Control" (PE 168.184). 19 In March 1999, for the first time in history, the australian government admitted that news reports about the top secret ukusa agreement were true. 20 Martin Brady, the director of Australia's Defence signals Directorate (DSD) told the australian broadcasting channel Nine network that the dsd "does co-operate with counterpart signals intelligence organisations overseas under the ukusa relationship." 21 In 2000, james woolsey, the former Director of the. Central Intelligence Agency, confirmed that. Intelligence uses interception systems and keyword searches to monitor European businesses. 22 Lawmakers in the United States feared that the echelon system could be used to monitor.

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14 In 1988, margaret Newsham, a lockheed employee under nsa contract, disclosed the echelon surveillance system to members of congress. Newsham told a member of the. Congress that the telephone calls of Strom Thurmond, a republican. Senator, were being collected by the nsa. Congressional investigators determined that "targeting. Political figures would not occur by accident, but was designed into the system from the start.", wallpaper an article titled "Somebody's Listening written by investigative journalist Duncan Campbell in the new Statesman, described the signals intelligence gathering activities of a program code-named "echelon". 16 James Bamford describes the system as the software controlling the collection and distribution of civilian telecommunications traffic conveyed using communication satellites, with the collection being undertaken by ground stations located in the footprint of the downlink leg.

global network of electronic spy stations that can eavesdrop on telephones, faxes and computers. It can even track bank accounts. This information is stored in Echelon computers, which can keep millions of records on individuals. Officially, however, Echelon doesn't exist. 11 Reporting and disclosures edit public disclosures (19722000) edit In 1972, former nsa analyst Perry fellwock under pseudonym Winslow Peck, first blew the whistle on echelon to ramparts in 1972, 12 where he gave commentary revealing a global network of listening posts and his experiences. Fellwock also included revelations such as the Israeli attack on uss liberty was deliberate and known by both sides, the existence of nuclear weapons in Israel in 1972, the widespread involvement of cia and nsa personnel in drugs and human smuggling, and cia operatives leading. 13 In 1982, james Bamford, investigative journalist and author wrote The puzzle palace, an in-depth look inside the workings of the nsa, then a super-secret agency, and the massive eavesdropping operation under the codename "shamrock". The nsa has used many codenames, and shamrock was the codename used for echelon prior to 1975.

Echelon, although this is a relatively minor detail". Intelligence community uses many code names ( see, for example, cia cryptonym ). Former nsa employee margaret Newsham claims resume that she worked on the configuration and installation of software that makes up the echelon system while employed at Lockheed Martin, from 1974 to 1984 in Sunnyvale, california, in the United States, and in Menwith Hill, england, in the. 8 At that time, according to newsham, the code name echelon was nsa's term for the computer network itself. Lockheed called it P415. The software programs were called silkworth and sire. A satellite named vortex intercepted communications.

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For vegetarianism other uses, see, echelon. Echelon, originally a secret government code name, is a surveillance program ( signals intelligence /sigint collection and analysis network) operated by the us with the aid of four other signatory nations to the. Ukusa security Agreement 1 : Australia, canada, new zealand, the, united Kingdom and the, united States, also known as the, five eyes. The echelon program was created in the late 1960s to monitor the military and diplomatic communications of the. Soviet Union and its, eastern Bloc allies during the, cold War, and was formally established in 1971. 5 6, by the end of the 20th century, the system referred to as "echelon" had evolved beyond its military and diplomatic origins, to also become "a global system for the interception of private and commercial communications" (mass surveillance and industrial espionage ). Contents, the european Parliament's, temporary committee on the echelon interception System stated, "It seems likely, in view of the evidence and the consistent pattern of statements from a very wide range of individuals and organisations, including American sources, that its name is in fact.


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14 Two years later, hager s book was cited by the european Parliament in a report titled An Appraisal of the technology. Then as she is on her behaviourite job of quainance bandy, fruting for firstlings and taking her tithe, we may take our review of the two mounds to see nothing of the himples here as at elsewhere, by sixes and sevens, like so many heegills.

4 Comment

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