Nepali is spoken indigenously over most of Nepal west of the gandaki river, then progressively less further to the east. 22 dialects edit dialects of Nepali include Acchami, baitadeli, bajhangi, bajurali, bheri, dadeldhuri, dailekhi, darchulali, darchuli, gandakeli, humli, purbeli, and Soradi. 10 Doteli (Dotyali) is a closely related language which is included in the macrolanguage nepali. 23 Phonology edit see also: Nepali phonology In matters of script, nepali uses devanagari. On this grammar page nepali is written in "standard orientalist " transcription as outlined in Masica (1991 :xv). Being "primarily a system of transliteration from the Indian scripts, and based in turn upon Sanskrit " (cf.
20 Also in an attempt to disassociate himself with his Khas background, the rana monarch Jung Bahadur Rana decreed that the term Gorkhali be used instead of Khas kurā to describe the language. Meanwhile, paper the British Indian administrators had started using the term "Nepal" (after Newar) to refer to the gorkha kingdom. In the 1930s, the gorkha government also adopted this term to describe their country. Subsequently, the Khas language also came to be known as "Nepali language". By the third decade, the nepali state finally discontinued the use of the term Gorkhali, substituting it with Nepali, a move that provoked some stifled protest in Kathmandu from Newar intellectuals even during the autocratic Rana period. 21 In all these years, nepali has had influences from many languages. While nepali is technically from the same family as languages like hindi and Bengali, it has taken many loan words. Words like dhoka "door jhyāl "window pasal "shop and rāngo " water buffalo ' have tibeto-burmese roots. Words like sahīd "martyr" (ultimately from Arabic ) and kānun "law" (ultimately from Greek, came from Persian into nepali, as the former functioned as the literary language of much of the muslim world for over a millennium). Many English words are in use today due to the rising popularity of the United States of America in the region and the previous British aid at schools and other fields.
Citation needed The Khas people originally referred to plan their language as Khas kurā khas speech which was also known as Parbatiya (or Parbattia or Paharia, "language of the hill country. 15 16 The newar people used the term " Gorkhali " as a name for this language, as they identified it with the gorkhali conquerors. The gorkhalis themselves started using this term to refer to their language at a later stage. The census of India used the term naipali at least from 1901 to 1951, the 1961 census replacing it with Nepali. 18 19 Expansion particularly to the north, west, and south brought the growing state into conflict with the British and Chinese. This led to wars that trimmed back the territory to an area roughly corresponding to nepal's present borders. Both China and Britain understood the value of a buffer state and did not attempt to further reduce the territory of the new country. After the gorkha conquests, the kathmandu valley or Nepal became the new center of political initiative. As the entire conquered territory of the gorkhas ultimately became 'nepal in the early decades of the 20th century, gorkha language activists in India, especially darjeeling and Varanasi, began petitioning Indian universities to adopt the name 'nepali' for the language.
One notable extended family settled in the gorkha kingdom, a small principality about halfway between pokhara and Kathmandu. In 1559 ad a lamjunge prince, dravya shah established himself on the throne of Gorkha with the help of local Khas and Magars. He raised an army of khas with the commandership of Bhagirath Panta. Later, in the late 18th century his heir Prithvi narayan Shah raised and improvised an army of Chhetri, thakuri, magars and Gurung people and possibly other hill tribesmen and set out to conquer and consolidate dozens of small principalities in the himalayan foothills. Since gorkha had replaced the original Khas homeland, Khaskura was redubbed Gorkhali "language of the gorkhas". Citation needed The most notable military achievement of Prithvi narayan Shah was the conquest of the urbanized Kathmandu valley, on the eastern rim of the gandaki basin. This region was also called Nepal at the time. Kathmandu became Prithvi narayan's new capital, from which he and his heirs extended their domain east across the koshi river basin, north to the tibetan Plateau, south into the plains of North India, and west across the karnali/Bheri basin and beyond.
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10 Nepali is traditionally spoken in the hill Region of Nepal (Pahad, especially in the western part of the country. Although the nepal Bhasha language dominated the kathmandu valley, nepali is currently the most dominant. Nepali is used in government and for as the everyday language of a growing portion of the local population. Nevertheless, the exclusive use of Nepali in the courts and government of Nepal is being challenged. Recognition of other languages in Nepal was one of the objectives of the communist Party of Nepal 's long war.
11 In Bhutan, those who speak nepali, known as Lhotshampa, are estimated at about 35 percent 12 of the population. This number includes displaced Bhutanese refugees, with unofficial estimates of the ethnic Bhutanese refugee population as high as 30 to 40 percent, constituting a majority in the south (about 242,000 people). 13 ) Since the late 1980s, over 100,000 Lhotshampas have been forced out of Bhutan, accused by the government of being illegal immigrants. 12 A large portion of them were expelled in an ethnic cleansing campaign, and presently live in refugee camps in eastern Nepal. There are.9 million Nepali language speakers in India, they reside in sikkim, darjeeling district and Northeast India. 14 History edit copper Inscription by king of Doti, raika mandhata Shahi at saka era 1612 ( ) (or 1747 bikram Samvat ) in old Khas language using devanagari script Around 500 years ago, khas people from the karnali - bheri - seti basin migrated.
7, historically, the language was called, khas (. Khas kurā ) and Gorkhali (language of the gorkha kingdom ) before the term Nepali was adopted. The origin of modern Nepali language is believed to be from Sinja of Jumla. Therefore, the nepali dialect Khas Bhasa is still spoken among the people of the region. 8 It is also known as Khey (the native term for Khas Arya living in the periphery of the kathmandu valley parbate (native term meaning "of the hill or Partya among the newar people, and Pahari among the madhesis and Tharus.
Other names include dzongkha Lhotshammikha southern Language spoken by the Lhotshampas of Bhutan ). Contents Literature edit main article: Nepali literature nepali developed a significant literature within a short period of a hundred years in the 19th century. This literary explosion was fueled by Adhyatma ramayana ; Sundarananda bara (1833 birsikka, an anonymous collection of folk tales; and a version of the south Asian epic Ramayana by Bhanubhakta Acharya (d. The contribution of trio-laureates lekhnath paudyal, laxmi Prasad devkota, and Balkrishna sama took nepali to the level of other world languages. The contribution of expatriate writers outside nepal, especially in Darjeeling and Varanasi in India, is also notable. In the past decade, there have been many contributions to nepali literature from the nepali diaspora in Asia, europe, america, and India. Number of speakers edit According to the 2011 national census,.6 percent of the population of Nepal speaks Nepali as a first language. 9 The Ethnologue website reports 12,300,000 speakers within Nepal (from the 2011 census).
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Eighth Schedule to the constitution as an Indian language letter with official status in the state. Sikkim north east states including Assam, burma, nepali diaspora worldwide and. West Bengal 's, darjeeling district. 6, nepali developed in proximity to a number of Indo-Aryan languages, most notably the other. Pahari languages and, maithili, and shows, sanskrit influence. However, owing to nepal's location, it has also been influenced. Nepali is mainly differentiated from Central Pahari, both in grammar and vocabulary, by tibeto-burman idioms owing to close contact with this language group.
Not to be confused with, newar language. "Khas language" redirects here. For native speakers of this language, see. Nepali devanagari : ) known by endonym, khas-kura nepali : ) is an, indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch. It is the official language. It is spoken mainly in Nepal territory and by about a quarter of the population. 5, in, india, nepali is listed in the.
taught as part of the. This proposal was rejected on the basis that the three conjuncts distinguished did not define a writing system difference and should continue to be treated as conjuncts with the collation differences handled through collation algorithms. This seemed fair enough, and after this software was developed for the nepali language working with the Unicode devanagari code block (eg. Bal, gurung and Hall 2006). Early attempts to encode nepali lipi (Nepaalalipi). In 2001 the Unicode expert Michael everson posted a proposed code block (Everson 2001) which he named Newari and illustrated with graphic characters from Ranjana, and also about the same time he posted a draft code block named Nepali and illustrated this with graphic characters. Though the newar community already had 8-bit hack fonts for their writing (the book by Shakya (2002) could be viewed as a description of his 8-bit hack fonts a number of Newar activists began to take an interest in Unicode standards for Newar writing, with. A meeting of the nepal Lipi guthi in July 2008 explored the ideas that each style of writing should be separately encoded and that the actual shapes of the characters should themselves be standardised. I became involved at about this point, and studied the book by Shakya (2002) to find out more about the writing of Nepal Bhasa, and how it differed from devanagari which i knew was often used to write nepal. Shakya gives small tables of the basic characters of the writing, for Ranjana, for Prachalit, and for Bhujimmola, but to my surprise these were not equivalent, the Prachalit tables had significantly more characters, as can be seen in Figure 5 for the consonants of the.
While these two are not the oldest examples of their writing, very old examples can be seen in the patan Museum nearby. Other styles of writing have also appeared. Rabison Shakya (2002) in his book on how to write nepal. Bhasa identifies a third style which metamorphosis he refers to as Bhujimmola, while hemraj Shakyavansha (1985) identified 9 styles. Different styles appear to have been used for different purposes ranjana for sacred and religious texts, Prachalit for everyday secular writings and Bhujimmola for administrative purposes. Rabison Shakya (2002) in his book on how to write nepal Bhasa identifies a third style which he refers to as Bhujimmola, while hemraj Shakyavansha (1985) identified 9 styles. Newspaper with Ranjana headline, and Prachalit body.
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Pat Hall, language technology kendra, patan, nepal email protected, fig. Newari lipi on Brass. Style of writing Nepali language (Nepal Bhasa). Forget Gurkhas, the newar people had been the rulers of the kathmandu valley for over many centuries filsafat and still are. They call the kathmandu valley "Nepal and their language "Nepal Bhasha" the language of Kathamandu valley or Nepal. While their writing was called "Nepal Lipi" or "Nepaalalipi". In the temples around Kathmandu valley you can see their writing carved either inot stone or wood, or embossed in brass or other metals. There are two distinct styles of writing, an ornate style with many long downward strokes which they call "Ranjana and a more rounded style which they call "Prachalit". Newari fonts can be downloaded by clicking on the above link.