During the first World War, paris sometimes found itself on the front line; 600 to 1,000 Paris taxis played a small but highly important symbolic role in transporting 6,000 soldiers to the front line at the first Battle of the marne. The city was also bombed by zeppelins and shelled by german long-range guns. In the years after the war, known as Les Années Folles, paris continued to be a mecca for writers, musicians and artists from around the world, including Ernest Hemingway, igor Stravinsky, james joyce, josephine baker, sidney bechet 64 and the surrealist Salvador Dalí. 65 In the years after the peace conference, the city was also home to growing numbers of students and activists from French colonies and other Asian and African countries, who later became leaders of their countries, such as ho chi minh, zhou enlai and léopold. 66 General Charles de gaulle on the Champs-Élysées celebrating the liberation of Paris on, the german army marched into paris, which had been declared an " open city ". On 16, following German orders, the French police and gendarmes arrested 12,884 Jews, including 4,115 children, and confined them during five days at the vel d'hiv ( Vélodrome d'hiver from which they were transported by train to the extermination camp at Auschwitz. None of the children came back.
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His successor, napoleon iii, and the newly appointed prefect of the seine, georges-Eugène haussmann, launched a gigantic public works project to build wide new boulevards, a new opera house, a central market, new aqueducts, sewers, and parks, including the bois de boulogne and bois. In 1860, napoleon iii also annexed the surrounding towns and created eight new arrondissements, expanding Paris to its current limits. In the 1860s, paris streets and monuments were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, giving it the name "The city of Light." During the Franco-Prussian War (18701871 paris was besieged by the Prussian army. After months of blockade, hunger, and then bombardment by the Prussians, the city was forced to surrender on On 28 March, a revolutionary government called the paris Commune the seized power in Paris. The commune held power for two months, until it was harshly suppressed by the French army during the "Bloody week" at the end of may 1871. The eiffel Tower, under construction in november 1888, startled Parisians and the world with its modernity. Late in the 19th century, paris hosted two major international expositions: the 1889 Universal Exposition, was held to mark the centennial of the French revolution and featured the new Eiffel Tower; and the 1900 Universal Exposition, which gave paris the pont Alexandre iii, the Grand. Paris became the laboratory of Naturalism ( Émile zola ) and Symbolism ( Charles baudelaire and paul Verlaine and of Impressionism in art ( courbet, manet, monet, renoir ). 20th and 21st centuries edit see also: Paris in the belle Époque, paris during the first World War, paris between the wars (19191939), paris in World War ii, and History of Paris (19462000) by 1901, the population of Paris had grown to 2,715,000. At the beginning of the century, artists from around the world including: Pablo picasso, modigliani, and Henri matisse made paris their home. It was the birthplace of fauvism, cubism and abstract art, 61 and authors such as Marcel Proust were exploring new approaches to literature.
A succession of revolutionary factions ruled Paris until 9 november 1799 ( coup d'état du 18 brumaire when Napoléon Bonaparte seized power as First Consul. The population of Paris had dropped by 100,000 during the revolution, but between 17, it surged with 160,000 new residents, reaching 660,000. Napoleon Bonaparte replaced the elected government of Paris with a prefect reporting only to him. He began erecting shortage monuments to military glory, including the Arc de Triomphe, and improved the neglected infrastructure of the city with new fountains, the canal de l'Ourcq, père lachaise cemetery and the city's first metal bridge, the pont des Arts. During the restoration, the bridges and squares of Paris were returned to their pre-revolution names, but the july revolution of 1830 in Paris, (commemorated by the july column on Place de la bastille brought a constitutional monarch, louis Philippe i, to power. The first railway line to paris opened in 1837, beginning a new period of massive migration from the provinces to the city. Louis-Philippe was overthrown by a popular uprising in the streets of Paris in 1848.
In the filsafat summer of 1789, paris became the centre stage of the French revolution. On 14 July, a mob seized the arsenal at the Invalides, acquiring thousands of guns, and stormed the bastille, a symbol of royal authority. The first independent Paris Commune, or city council, met in the hôtel de ville and, on 15 July, elected a mayor, the astronomer jean Sylvain bailly. The paris Opera was the centrepiece of Napoleon iii's new Paris. The architect, Charles Garnier, described the style simply as "Napoleon the Third." louis xvi and the royal family were brought to paris and made prisoners within the tuileries Palace. In 1793, as the revolution turned more and more radical, the king, queen, and the mayor were guillotined, along with more than 16,000 others (throughout France during the reign of Terror. The property of the aristocracy and the church was nationalised, and the city's churches were closed, sold or demolished.
Although no longer the capital of France, arts and sciences in the city flourished with the comédie-française, the Academy of painting, and the French Academy of Sciences. To demonstrate that the city was safe from attack, the king had the city walls demolished and replaced with tree-lined boulevards that would become the Grands boulevards of today. Other marks of his reign were the collège des quatre-nations, the Place vendôme, the Place des Victoires, and Les Invalides. 18th and 19th centuries edit see also: Paris in the 18th century, paris during the second Empire, and haussmann's renovation of Paris Paris grew in population from about 400,000 in 1640 to 650,000 in 1780. 46 A new boulevard, the Champs-Élysées, extended the city west to Étoile, while the working-class neighbourhood of the faubourg saint-Antoine on the eastern site of the city grew more and more crowded with poor migrant workers from other regions of France. Paris was the centre of an explosion of philosophic and scientific activity known as the Age of Enlightenment. Diderot and d'Alembert published their Encyclopédie in 1751, and the montgolfier Brothers launched the first manned flight in a hot-air balloon on 21 november 1783, from the gardens of the Château de la muette. Paris was the financial capital of continental Europe, the primary european centre of book publishing, fashion and the manufacture of fine furniture and luxury goods.
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In the late 12th century, philip Augustus extended the louvre fortress to defend the city against river invasions from the west, gave the city its first walls between 11, rebuilt its bridges to either side of its central island, and paved its main thoroughfares. In 1190, he transformed Paris's former cathedral school into a student-teacher corporation that would become the University of Paris and would draw students from all of Europe. During the hundred years' war, paris was occupied by England-friendly burgundian forces from 1418, before being occupied outright by the English when Henry v of England entered the French capital in 1420; 38 in spite of a 1429 effort by joan of Arc to liberate. In the late 16th-century French Wars of Religion, paris was a stronghold of the catholic league, the organisers. Bartholomew's day massacre in which thousands of French Protestants were killed.
40 The conflicts ended when pretender to the throne henry iv, after converting to catholicism to gain entry to the capital, entered the city in 1594 and claimed the crown of France. This king made several improvements to the capital during his reign: he completed the construction of Paris's first uncovered, sidewalk-lined bridge, the pont neuf, built a louvre extension connecting it to the tuileries Palace, and created the first Paris residential square, the Place royale, now. The king would end his life in the capital, assassinated in a narrow street near Les Halles marketplace in 1610. During the 17th century, cardinal Richelieu, chief minister of louis xiii, was determined to make paris the most beautiful city in Europe. He built five new bridges, a new chapel for big the college of Sorbonne, and a palace for himself, the palais Cardinal, which he bequeathed to louis xiii. After Richelieu's death in 1642, it was the renamed the palais-royal. Due to the parisian uprisings during the Fronde civil war, louis xiv moved his court to a new palace, versailles, in 1682.
Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century ad by saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum. Clovis the Frank, the first king of the merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to paris and the parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-France failed to avert sacking by vikings in 845, but Paris's strategic importance—with its bridges preventing ships from passing—was established by successful defence in the siege of Paris (88586). In 987, hugh Capet, count of Paris ( comte de paris ) and duke of the Franks ( duc des Francs was elected King of the Franks ( roi des Francs ). Under the rule of the capetian kings, paris gradually became the largest and most prosperous city in France.
Middle Ages to louis xiv edit see also: Paris in the middle Ages, paris in the 16th century, and Paris in the 17th century by the end of the 12th century, paris had become the political, economic, religious, and cultural capital of France. The palais de la cité, the royal residence, was located at the western end of the Île de la cité. In 1163, during the reign of louis vii, maurice de sully, bishop of Paris, undertook the construction of the notre dame cathedral at its eastern extremity. After the marshland between the river seine and its slower 'dead arm' to its north was filled in around the 10th century, paris's cultural centre began to move to the right Bank. In 1137, a new city marketplace (today's Les Halles ) replaced the two smaller ones on the Île de la cité and Place de la Grève (Hotel de ville). The latter location housed the headquarters of Paris's river trade corporation, an organisation that later became, unofficially (although formally in later years paris's first municipal government.
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Inhabitants are known in English as "Parisians" and in French as Parisiens ( paʁizjɛ essay ( listen ). They are also pejoratively called Parigots ( paʁiɡo ( listen ). Note 1 History edit main articles: History of Paris and Timeline of Paris Origins edit The parisii, a sub-tribe of the celtic Senones, inhabited the paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century. One of the area's major northsouth trade routes crossed the seine on the île de la cité ; this meeting place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town and an important trading centre. The parisii traded with many river towns (some as far away as the Iberian Peninsula) and minted their own coins for that purpose. Gold coins minted by the parisii (1st century bc) The romans conquered the paris Basin in 52 bc and, after making the island a garrison camp, began extending their settlement in a more permanent way to paris's Left Bank. The gallo-roman town was originally called Lutetia (more fully, lutetia parisiorum, "Lutetia of the parisii. It became a prosperous city with a forum, baths, temples, theatres, and an amphitheatre. By the end of the western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a latin name that would later become paris in French.
Paris hosts the band annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris hosted the Olympic Games in 1900, 1924 and will host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The 19 fifa world Cups, the 2007 Rugby world Cup, and the 1960, 19 uefa european Championships were also held in the city and, every july, the tour de France bicycle race finishes there. Contents Etymology edit see wiktionary for the name of Paris in various languages other than English and French. The name "Paris" is derived from its early inhabitants, the celtic Parisii tribe. The city's name is not related to the paris of Greek mythology. Paris is often referred to as The city of Light ( la ville lumière both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment, and more literally because paris was one of the first European cities to adopt gas street lighting. Citation needed In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, paris has also been known as Panam(e) (pronounced panam ) in French slang.
stations in the world, with 262 million passengers in 2015. 14 Paris is especially known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2017, with.1 million visitors. 15 16 The musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, and the pompidou centre musée national d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe. The historical district along the seine in the city centre is classified as a unesco heritage site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the cathedral of Notre dame de paris and the gothic royal chapel of sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la cité ; the eiffel Tower, constructed for the paris Universal Exposition of 1889 ; the Grand. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the uk, germany and China. 17 18 It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. 19 The football club Paris saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris. The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 fifa world Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of saint-Denis.
Singapore and ahead of, zurich, hong Kong, oslo and, geneva. 8, the city of Paris's administrative limits form an East-West oval centred on the island at its historical heart, the Île de la cité ; this island is near the top of an arc of the river. Seine that divides the city into southern. Rive gauche (Left Bank) and northern, rive droite regions. Paris is the core of a built-up area that extends well beyond its limits: commonly vertebrae referred to as the agglomération Parisienne, and statistically as a unité urbaine (a measure of urban area the paris agglomeration's 2013 population of 10,601,122 made it the largest urban area. 3 not in citation given city-influenced commuter activity reaches well beyond even this in a statistical aire urbaine de paris (a measure of metropolitan area that had a 2013 population of 12,405,426, 9 a number one-fifth the population of France, 10 the largest metropolitan area. The city is a major rail, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de gaulle (the second busiest airport in Europe after London heathrow Airport with.5 million passengers in 2017) and Paris-Orly.
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This article is about the capital of France. For other uses, see. Commune and department in Île-de-France, france. Capital of France, paris (French pronunciation: paʁi ( listen ) is the capital and most populous city of, france, with an area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) and a population of 2,206,488. 5 6, since the 17th century, paris has dessay been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, music and painting. The paris Region had. Gdp of 681 billion (US850 billion) in 2016, accounting for 31 per cent of the gdp of France. 7, in 20132014, the paris Region had the third-highest gdp in the world and the largest regional gdp in the. According to the, economist Intelligence Unit, worldwide cost of living Survey in 2018, paris was the second-most expensive city in the world, behind.