We have no fellow-scholars, and must lay our lessons to heart alone." 40 These personal troubles as well as the compromise of 1850 inspired Lowell to accept an offer from William Wetmore Story to spend a winter in Italy. 41 to pay for the trip, lowell sold land around Elmwood, intending to sell off further acres of the estate over time to supplement his income, ultimately selling off 25 of the original 30 acres (120,000 m2). 42 Walter died suddenly in Rome of cholera, and Lowell and his wife, with their daughter Mabel, returned to the United States in October 1852. 43 Lowell published recollections of his journey in several magazines, many of which would be collected years later as Fireside Travels (1867). He also edited volumes with biographical sketches for a series on British poets. 44 His wife maria, who had been suffering from poor health for many years, became very ill in the spring of 1853 and died on October 27 45 of tuberculosis. 26 Just before her burial, her coffin was opened so that her daughter Mabel could see her face while lowell "leaned for a long while against a tree weeping according to henry wadsworth Longfellow and his wife, who were in attendance. 46 In 1855, lowell oversaw the publication of a memorial volume of his wife's poetry, with only fifty copies for private circulation.
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It proved a popular satire, and the first 3,000 copies sold out quickly. 35 In it, he took good-natured jabs at his contemporary poets and critics—but not all the subjects were pleased. Edgar Allan poe was referred to as part genius and "two-fifths letter sheer fudge he reviewed the work in the southern Literary messenger and called it loose'—ill-conceived and feebly executed, as well in detail as in general we confess some surprise at his putting forth. 35 In 1848, lowell also published The biglow Papers, later named by the Grolier Club as the most influential book of 1848. 37 The first 1,500 copies sold out within a week and a second edition was soon issued—though Lowell made no profit, as he had to absorb the cost of stereotyping the book himself. 38 The book presented three main characters, each representing different aspects of American life and using authentic American dialects in their dialogue. 39 Under the surface, the biglow Papers was also a denunciation of the mexicanAmerican War and war in general. 24 First trip to europe edit In 1850, lowell's mother died unexpectedly, as did his third daughter, rose. Her death left Lowell depressed and reclusive for six months, despite the birth of his son Walter by the end of the year. He wrote to a friend that death "is a private tutor.
31 poe mourned the journal's demise, calling it "a most severe blow to the cause—the cause of a pure taste". 30 Despite the failure of The pioneer, lowell continued his interest in the literary world. He wrote a series on "Anti-Slavery in the United States" for the daily news, though his series was discontinued by the editors after four articles in may 1846. 32 he had published these articles anonymously, believing that they would have more impact if they were not known to be the work of a committed abolitionist. 33 In the spring of 1848, he formed a connection with the national Anti-Slavery Standard of New York, agreeing to contribute weekly either a poem or a prose article. After only one year, he was asked to contribute half as often to the Standard to make warming room for contributions from Edmund quincy, another writer and reformer. 34 Daguerreotype of James Russell Lowell, taken in Philadelphia, 1844 a fable for Critics was one of Lowell's most popular works, published anonymously in 1848.
27 he again considered suicide, writing to a online friend that he thought "of my razors and summary my throat and that i am a fool and a coward not to end it all at once". 26 Literary career edit lowell's earliest poems were published without remuneration in the southern Literary messenger in 1840. 28 he was inspired to new efforts towards self-support and joined with his friend Robert Carter in founding the literary journal The pioneer. 20 The periodical was distinguished by the fact that most of its content was new rather than material that had been previously published elsewhere, and by the inclusion of very serious criticism, which covered not only literature but also art and music. 29 Lowell wrote that it would "furnish the intelligent and reflecting portion of the reading Public with a rational substitute for the enormous quantity of thrice-diluted trash, in the shape of namby-pamby love tales and sketches, which is monthly poured out to them by many. 30 The first issue of the journal included the first appearance of " The tell-Tale heart " by Edgar Allan poe. 31 Lowell was treated for an eye disease in New York shortly after the first issue, and in his absence carter did a poor job of managing the journal. 23 The magazine ceased publication after three monthly numbers beginning in January 1843, leaving Lowell 1,800 in debt.
23 Maria was in poor health, and the couple moved to Philadelphia shortly after their marriage, thinking that her lungs could heal there. 24 In Philadelphia, he became a contributing editor for the pennsylvania freeman, an abolitionist newspaper. 25 In the spring of 1845, the lowells returned to cambridge to make their home at Elmwood. They had four children, though only one (Mabel, born 1847) survived past infancy. Blanche was born December 31, 1845, but lived only fifteen months; Rose, born in 1849, survived only a few months as well; their only son Walter was born in 1850 but died in 1852. 26 Lowell was very affected by the loss of almost all of his children. His grief over the death of his first daughter in particular was expressed in his poem " The first Snowfall " (1847).
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He once confided to a alighieri friend that he held a cocked pistol to his forehead and considered killing himself at the age. 15 Marriage and family edit In late 1839, lowell met Maria white through her brother William, a classmate at Harvard, 16 and the two became engaged in the autumn of 1840. Maria's father Abijah White, a wealthy merchant from Watertown, insisted that their wedding be postponed until Lowell had gainful employment. 17 They were finally married on December 26, 1844, 18 shortly after the groom published Conversations on the Old poets, a collection of his previously published essays. 19 A friend described their relationship as "the very picture of a true marriage". 20 Lowell himself believed that she was made up "half of earth and more than half of heaven". 17 She, too, wrote poetry, and the next twelve years of Lowell's life were deeply affected by her influence.
He said that his first book of poetry a year's Life (1841) "owes all its beauty to her though it only sold 300 copies. 17 Maria's character and beliefs led her to become involved in the movements directed against intemperance and slavery. She was a member of the boston Female Anti-Slavery society and persuaded her husband to become an abolitionist. 21 James had previously expressed antislavery sentiments, but Maria urged him towards more active expression and involvement. 22 His second volume of poems Miscellaneous poems expressed these antislavery thoughts, and its 1,500 copies sold well.
9 In his last year there, he wrote, "During Freshman year, i did nothing, during Sophomore year I did nothing, during Junior year I did nothing, and during Senior year I have thus far done nothing in the way of college studies." 8 In his. As he said later, "I was as great an ass as ever brayed thought it singing." 10 During his undergraduate years, lowell was a member of Hasty pudding and served both as Secretary and poet. Lowell was elected the poet of the class of 1838 11 and, as was tradition, was asked to recite an original poem on Class day, the day before commencement on July 17, 1838. 9 he was suspended, however, and not allowed to participate. Instead, his poem was printed and made available thanks to subscriptions paid by his classmates.
11 he had composed the poem in Concord, 12 where he had been exiled by the harvard faculty to the care of the rev. Barzallai frost because of his neglect of his studies. 13 During his stay in Concord, he became friends with Ralph Waldo Emerson and got to know the other Transcendentalists. His Class day poem satirized the social movements of the day; abolitionists, Thomas Carlyle, emerson, and the Transcendentalists were treated. 12 Lowell did not know what vocation to choose after graduating, and he vacillated among business, the ministry, medicine, and law. He ultimately enrolled at Harvard Law School in 1840 and was admitted to the bar two years later. 14 While studying law, however, he contributed poems and prose articles to various magazines. During this time, he was admittedly depressed and often had suicidal thoughts.
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(17821861 a minister at a unitarian church in Boston who had previously studied theology at Edinburgh, and Harriett Brackett Spence lowell. 4 by the time that James Russell Lowell was born, the family owned a large estate in Cambridge called Elmwood. 5 he was the youngest of six children; his siblings were Charles, rebecca, mary, william, and Robert. 6 Lowell's mother built in him an appreciation for literature at an early age, especially red in poetry, ballads, and tales from her native orkney. 4 he attended school under Sophia dana, who later married george ripley ; he later studied at a school run by a particularly harsh disciplinarian, where one of his classmates was Richard Henry dana. 7 Lowell attended Harvard College beginning at age 15 in 1834, though he was not a good student and often got into trouble. 8 In his sophomore year, he was absent from required chapel attendance 14 times and from classes umum 56 times.
He used poetry for reform, particularly in abolitionism. However, his commitment to the defense anti-slavery cause wavered over the years, as did his opinion on African-Americans. He attempted to emulate the true yankee accent in the dialogue of his characters, particularly in The biglow Papers. This depiction of the dialect, as well as his many satires, was an inspiration to writers such as Mark Twain and. Contents biography edit early life edit Elmwood, birthplace and longtime home of James Russell Lowell in Cambridge, massachusetts James Russell Lowell was born February 22, 1819. 1 he was a member of the eighth generation of the lowell family, 2 the descendants of Percival Lowle who settled in Newbury, massachusetts, in 1639. 3 His parents were the reverend Charles Russell Lowell.
to teach there for twenty years. He traveled to europe before officially assuming his teaching duties in 1856, and married Frances Dunlap shortly thereafter in 1857. That year, lowell also became editor. It was not until 20 years later that he received his first political appointment, the ambassadorship to the, kingdom of Spain. He was later appointed ambassador to the. He spent his last years in Cambridge in the same estate where he was born, and died there in 1891. Lowell believed that the poet played an important role as a prophet and critic of society.
Maria white in 1844. The couple had several children, though only one survived past childhood. They soon became involved in the movement to abolish slavery, with Lowell using poetry to express his anti- slavery views and taking a job. Philadelphia, pennsylvania, as the editor of an abolitionist nurse newspaper. After moving back to cambridge, lowell was one of the founders of a journal called. The pioneer, which lasted only three issues. He gained notoriety in 1848 with the publication. A fable for Critics, a book-length poem satirizing contemporary critics and poets. The same year, he published.
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James Russell Lowell ( /loʊəl/ ; February 22, 1819 august 12, 1891) was an American. Romantic poet, critic, editor, and diplomat. He is associated with the. Fireside poets, a group of, new England writers who were among the first, american poets that rivaled the popularity. These writers usually used conventional forms and meters in their xmas poetry, making them suitable for families entertaining at their fireside. Lowell graduated from, harvard College in 1838, despite his reputation as a troublemaker, and went on to earn a law degree from. He published his first collection of poetry in 1841 and married.