The participants often were criticized, punished, or told to work harder. Many of their teachers realized they had high academic potential and many of the participants had superior oral skills that were not matched by their written or reading skills. Yet, each participant recounted numerous instances in which their teachers, confused because of the superior abilities they displayed in some areas, repeatedly called these students lazy and told them to "shape up" and "work harder.". New theories of intelligence and assessment suggest that the potential of some students is not synonymous with scores on certain intelligence tests. For many of these students, the discussion of these school memories was troubling and several indicated that they tried never "to think about what happened to them in school." In some cases, they admitted to "blocking out" memories of painful events that they would rather. As one male student eloquently summarized, "I still have a lot of emotion about.
Counseling needs of Academically, talented Students with
Data analysis techniques included the use of a coding paradigm described by Strauss, and Strauss and Corbin, with three levels: open coding, axial coding, and selective coding. This coding paradigm results in the formulation of a core category or categories of results. The initial type of coding, known as open coding, involved unrestricted coding of all data included in field notes, interviews, and other pertinent documents. In open coding, data were analyzed and coded. As the researchers verified codes and determined relationships among and between codes, a determination was made about the relationship of a code to a category. After initial categories were determined, axial coding enabled the researchers to specify relationships among the many thesis categories that emerged in open coding and, ultimately, resulted in the conceptualization of one or more categories selected as the "core." A core category accounted for most of the. In the final stage of coding, selective coding, the relationships among categories were examined to determine the saturation of categories in the identification of the core category. Results, the findings in this study identified a dominant core category for both participants and parents involving the negative experiences that all participants had in school due to the interaction of their abilities and their disabilities and the way that those experiences affected their social. The negative experiences included problems with teachers and peers, as well as internal problems such as low self-confidence and low self-esteem. Negative school Experiences, every participant recalled negative and painful memories from their elementary and secondary school years. These negative school experiences included repeated punishment for not completing work on time, retention in a grade, placement in a self-contained special education class in which the majority of students were developmentally delayed, and negative inappropriate treatment by peers and teachers.
One aim of studying multiple cases is to increase generalizability. At a deeper level, the aim is to see processes and outcomes across many cases and thus to develop more best sophisticated descriptions and more powerful explanations" (p. Merriam (2001 miles and Huberman, and Yin suggest the use of qualitative comparative case study as an appropriate methodology for the indepth study of a number of cases to make analytical generalizations. Prior to the initial interview, each participant was provided with a biographical questionnaire and written information about the study and his or her anticipated role in it, and permission was sought from each participant for interviews, document review, and parent contacts. Parents and/or teachers also were asked to complete a brief summary of their perceptions of academic history and each interview session was used to clarify, verify, and expand upon the subject's responses. All interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed and the field notes and observations made by the researcher at the time of the interviews were added to the transcriptions. Interviews and other data collection procedures followed guidelines suggested by Spradley (1979 Strauss (1987 and Strauss and Corbin (1990). Data analysis was conducted using techniques designed by Strauss (1987) and Strauss and Corbin (1990). As suggested by these researchers, data analysis coincided with data collection and affected the collection of additional data.
This documentation material included identification during elementary or secondary school and testing information and screening by university staff. The sample students for this study were identified as having a high aptitude in elementary and secondary school, but most were not selected for participation in their district's gifted program, if one existed, because of the learning problems they experienced due to their learning disabilities. Extensive information was used to document the label of giftedness, such as iq and/or achievement tests, outstanding performance in one or more academic areas, teacher nomination, and product information from an academic portfolio. Nine of the participants were males and 6 were females; full-scale scores on the wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-revised ranged from 109 to 140, although each participant scored 125 or higher in either the verbal or performance scale. Significant differences were found between verbal and performance scores in several of the participants, ranging from 6 to 40 points. The use of the iq of 125 or above is not because any particular iq score can be equated with giftedness, but rather because a score of this level is indicative of a well-above-average aptitude. Using any iq cutoff to identify academically talented students with learning disabilities is problematic because of discrepancies among scores as well as decreasing scores over time, due to the nature of the learning disability and the inability of some students to learn information measured. Data collection, this qualitative, comparative cross-case study (Erlandson, harris, skipper, allen, 1993; Miles huberman, 1994; Yin, 1994) of academically talented students with learning disabilities was conducted with college students. Miles and Huberman believe that ".
Students - community college
To accomplish this, qualitative methods were used and a comparative case study analysis was completed. The coding paradigm suggested by Strauss and Corbin (1990) was used to analyze data, and core categories emerged from the data book about specific negative occurrences in school that affected the social and emotional vietnam development of the participants in the study. An in-depth analysis of this core category of negative educational experiences is provided, as is a discussion of the findings. Implications for the role that school counselors could have played in the identification of academically talented students are discussed, as are suggestions for the provision of counseling services for this population within the context of comprehensive developmental school counseling programs. Methods, a qualitative case study methodology (Erlandson., 1993; Miles huberman, 1994; Yin, 1994) was used to investigate the perceptions of university students who were both academically talented and learning disabled.
Following the Institutional review board of Human Subjects approval of the study, open-ended questionnaires and in-depth interviews explored participants' perceptions regarding their school experiences and, in particular, their social and emotional experiences in elementary and high school. Miles and Huberman, and Yin, indicate that the use of a comparative case study is an appropriate methodology for an in-depth study of a number of cases in order to make analytical generalizations (Lincoln guba, 1985) that emerge from the data. School counselors could be extremely helpful for some students, such as twice-exceptional students, who are particularly difficult to identify and who may not receive either the educational or the counseling program services they may need. The sample for this research comprised 15 currently enrolled college or university students with learning disabilities. Screening and documentation of students' disabilities was conducted by examining the university program for students with learning disabilities admissions' information.
Current research indicates that it is the interaction of high ability and learning disabilities that may cause confusion and create social and emotional difficulties for students as they struggle to understand why they can know an answer but not be able to say. Identifying Academically talented Students with learning Disabilities. Many high-ability students with learning disabilities are identified later in their school career, either at middle school or high school, even though most were referred by teachers or parents for testing or various types of assistance because of difficulties encountered in reading or writing. Learning problems were evident in those early grades although most students were referred but were not identified as having a learning disability until later in school. The situation is complicated by the fact that the abilities of gifted students often mask their disabilities, and, in turn, their disabilities may disguise their giftedness.
Due to this contradiction between high levels of ability and critical problems with learning, students who are academically talented and also have learning disabilities (gifted-LD) may be under identified. They may be excluded or underrepresented in both programs for students with learning disabilities and programs for gifted and talented students. Social/Emotional Characteristics of Academically talented Students with learning Disabilities. Gifted students with ld may demonstrate a strong, personal need for excellence in performance and in outcomes that may embody unhealthy perfectionism and intensity of emotions (Silverman, 1993). These characteristics resemble what has been termed oversensitivity (Dabrowski piechowski, 1977; Daniels, 1983; Olenchak, 1994; Vespi yewchuck, 1992 and unrealistic expectations of themselves, as students believe that they should be able to achieve (but cannot) in areas in which they have disabilities (Baum owen, 1988;. They also may have a tendency to experience intense frustration with difficult tasks (Baum., 1991; Olenchak) that may produce a general lack of motivation (Olenchak; Silverman, 1989) as well as disruptive or withdrawn behavior (Baum owen feelings of learned helplessness (Whitmore, 1981; Whitmore. A comprehensive review of recent research about the characteristics of gifted students with learning disabilities (Reis., 1995) found many more negative descriptive characteristics than positive characteristics that describe this population, including high frustration levels, depression, and low self-concept and self-efficacy. Purpose of the Study, the purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of academically talented university students with learning disabilities about their elementary and secondary school experiences. Of particular interest were the strategies these students used to be successful in school.
Gifted, child, gifted, guru
This definition, with three components, is inclusive enough to enable the identification of academically talented students with learning disabilities: Gifted behavior consists of behaviors that reflect an interaction among three basic clusters of human traits-above average ability, high levels of task commitment, and high levels. Individuals capable of developing gifted behavior are moliere those possessing or capable of developing this composite set of traits and applying them to any potentially valuable area of human performance. Persons who manifest or are capable of developing an interaction among the three clusters require a wide variety of educational opportunities and services that are not ordinarily provided through regular instructional programs. (Renzulli reis, 1997,. Academically talented students are a highly diverse group of individuals who have an ability, in one or more domains, that is sufficiently advanced and who require adaptation in the ordinary environment that serves the needs of average students their age, but many also learn differently. The task Interaction of Giftedness and learning Disabilities. Educational research has expanded in recent years with the study of various special populations, and new theories of intelligence and assessment (Gardner, 1983; Sternberg, 1981) suggest that the potential of some students is not synonymous with scores on certain intelligence tests. Many students labeled as "twice exceptional" exhibit feelings of inferiority, an inability to persevere in the accomplishment of goals, and a general lack of self-confidence, all characteristics that are common among high-ability students with learning disabilities (Baum, dixon, owen, 1991; Daniels, 1983; Olenchak, 1995; Whitmore.
Other researchers such. Guilford argued that intellect cannot be expressed in such a unitary manner, suggesting more multifaceted approaches to intelligence. More current research conducted in the past few decades provided support for multiple components of intelligence. This is particularly evident in a reexamination of 16 conceptions of giftedness that are interrelated in several ways (Sternberg davidson, 1986). Most of the researchers defined giftedness in terms of multiple qualities and regarded the sole use of an iq score as an inadequate measure of giftedness. Motivation, high self-concept, and creativity were found to be key qualities in many broadened proofread conceptions of giftedness (Siegler kotovsky, 1986). One broadened conception of giftedness that has been widely adopted is Joseph Renzulli's (1978, 1986) behavioral view of giftedness, which is used in school districts across the country.
often overlook signs of intellectual giftedness and focus attention on such deficits as poor spelling, reading, and writing. Many counseling professionals do not know how to develop appropriate intervention programs for students with disabilities due to a limited understanding of approaches (i.e., attitudes, values, beliefs) and inadequate skills to address the needs of this group (Glenn, 1998). Without appropriate knowledge and understanding of the needs and characteristics of specific groups of students with disabilities, school counselors may not know how to contribute to their academic, career, and personal/ social development. Recent research has been conducted on the social and emotional needs of talented students with learning disabilities, and this research indicates that academically talented students with learning disabilities have unique characteristics related to persistence and individual interests as well as lower academic selfefficacy than their. This article discusses recent findings about the counseling needs of talented university students with learning disabilities as well as some of the social and emotional problems they may encounter in elementary and secondary school because of the interaction of their learning problems and giftedness. Defining Academically gifted and Talented Students. For many years, psychologists, following in the footsteps of Lewis Terman, equated giftedness with high. This "legacy" survives to the present day, as giftedness and high iq continue to be equated in some conceptions of giftedness.
Inconsistencies in the roles of practicing school counselors and in counselor education programs have caused some school counseling scholars to begin to address the emerging role of the counselor regarding students with special needs(Glenn, 1998; Isaacs, Greene, valesky, 1998; keys, bemak, carpenter, king-sears, 1998;Lockhart, 2003). The American School counselor Association(asca, 1999) has outlined school counselors' role in serving these students, including responsibilities such as serving on multidisciplinary teams to identify the special needs student and collaborating with others to provide social skills training in classroom settings, in small groups,. To effectively implement paper some of these practices, counselors need to understand the counseling needs of students with specific disabilities. They also need to know how they can incorporate this knowledge into their asca-defined roles in serving students within the context of a comprehensive developmental counseling program. Recent research indicates that elementary school counselors are well suited to serve a pivotal role in both providing information related to how to identify students with disabilities and overseeing the various collaborative asca roles associated with working with special needs students (Isaacs., 1998).School. This article discusses recent research on academically talented students with learning disabilities and the specific counseling needs they demonstrate, and counseling intervention strategies that may help to address the unique needs of this population. Background of the Study, many academically talented students have learning disabilities, with some estimates suggesting that between 120,000 and 180,000 of such individuals currently attend American schools (davis rimm, 2003). A major concern is that some educators ".may hold some rather stereotypical notions about learning disabled and/or gifted students which, in turn, may cause them not even to consider such children in a program for gifted youngsters" (Minner, 1990,.
School counselors work individually and with other educators to meet the developmental needs of all students, including those with special needs or disabilities. In this article, the results of qualitative research are taxi summarized involving comparative case studies of university students who were both academically talented and learning disabled. These students encountered negative experiences during the elementary and secondary school years due to this dual exceptionality that affected their social and emotional development. An in-depth analysis of their educational experiences enabled researchers to probe their perceptions, and a summary of these findings is presented in this article. Implications for the role that school counselors can play in the identification of students with this profile are discussed, as is the need for the provision of counseling services for this population within the context of comprehensive developmental school counseling programs. Recent research on academically talented students with learning disabilities indicates that they have specific counseling needs that often are not addressed in elementary and secondary school (Olenchak reis, 2002; reis, neu, mcGuire, 1995). The primary function of the professional school counselor is to work individually and collaboratively with others to implement a comprehensive developmental school counseling program(asca, 2003). This program should focus on the academic, career, and personal/social developmental needs of all students, including those with special needs.