He and his successors conquered. Nearly all of Asia and European Russia and sent armies as far as central Europe and. Genghis Khan's grandson Kublai khan conquered China and. Established the yuan dynasty ( ad and gained fame in Europe through the. Writings of Marco polo. Although Mongol-led confederations sometimes showed wide political power.
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Beyond that lay the khanate of Turkestan. The quarrels of these states left the mamelukes free to mop up the crusader enclaves and to take revenge upon the Christians who had compromised themselves by collaboration with the mongols. Free mongolia essay, the country mongolia is paperless in Northern Asia. It is 46 degrees north, and 105 degrees east. Its climate is desert, with large daily and seasonal. The terrain of Mongolia is mainly vast semidesert and desert. Plains, grasslands, and mountains in the west and southwest. The famous Gobi desert. Is in south-central Mongolia. In 1203 ad, a single mongolian state was formed, based on nomadic tribal. Groupings under the leadership of Genghis Khan.
The mongol commander in the west favoured the succession of his younger brother, kubilai, far away in China. But he was distracted and withdrew many of his men to azerbaijan to wait on events. It was on a weakened army that the mamelukes fell at the goliath Spring english near nazareth on 3 September 1260. The mongol general was killed, the legend of Mongol invincibility was shattered and a turning-point in world history was reached. For the mongols the agoe of conquest was over and that of consolidation had begun. The unity of Chinghis Khans empire was at an end. After civil war the legacy was divided among the princes of his house, under the nominal supremacy of his grandson Kubilai, khan of China, who was to be the last of the Great Khans. The russian khanate was divided into three: the khanate of the golden Horde ran from the danube to the caucasus and to the east of it lay the Cheibanid khanate in the north (it was named after its first khan) and that of the White. The khanate of Persia included much of Asia minor, and stretched across Iraq and Iran to the Oxus.
The area nominally still subject to the caliphate had been in a state of disorder since Chinghis Khans campaign. The seljuks of Rum had been defeated in 1243 and were not capable of asserting authority. In this vacuum, relatively small and local essay Mongol forces could be effective and the mongol empire relied mainly upon vassals among numerous local rulers. The campain was entrusted to the younger brother of the Great Khan and began with the crossing of the Oxus on Newy years day 1256. After destroying the notorious sect of the Assassins en route, he moved on Baghdad, summoning the caliph to surrender. The city was stormed and sacked and the last Abasid caliph murdered because there were superstitions about shedding his blood he is supposed to have been rolled up in a carpet and trampled to death by horses. It was a black moment in the history of Islamd as, everywhere, christians took heart and anticipated the overthrow of their Moslem overlords. When, the following year, the mongol offensive was launched against Syria, moslems were forced to bow to the cross in the streets of the surrendered Damascus and a mosque was turned into a christian church. The mamelukes of Egypt were next on the list for conquest when the Great Khan died.
Meanwhile they raided Catholic Eurpoe. The teutonic knights, the poles and the hungarians all went down before them. Cracow was burnt and Moravia devastated. A mongol patrol crossed into austria, while the pursuers of the king of Hungary chased him through Croatia and finally reached Albania before they were recalled. The mongols left Europe because of dissensions of their leaders and the arrival of the news of the death of the khan. A new one was not chosen until 1246. A franciscan friar attended the ceremony (he was there as an emissary of the pope so did a russian grand duke, a seljuk sultan, the brother of the Abbuyid sultan of Egypt, an envoy from the Abbasid cliph, a representative of the king of Armenia. The election did not solve the problems posed by dissension among the mongols and it was not until another Great Khan was chosen (after his predecessors death had ended a short reign) that the stage was set for another Mongol attack. This time it fell almost entirely upon Islam, and provoked unwarranted optimism among Christians who noted also the rise of Nesorian influence at the mongol court.
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Not only was this a matter of moment to Christians and Buddhists there were both Nestorians and Buddhists among the mongols but it meant writing that the mongols were not identified with the religion of the majority in the near East. In 1218 Chinghis Khan turned to the west and the era of Mongol invasions opened in Transoxiana and northern Iran. He writing never acted carelessly, capriciously, or without premedition, but it may well be that the attack was provoked by the folloy of a moslem prince who killed his envoys. From there Chinghis went on to a devastating raid into persia followed by a swing northward through the caucasus into south Russia, and returned, having made a complete circuit of the caspian. All this was accomplisehd by 1223.
Bokhara and Samarkand were scaked with massacres of the townspeople which were meant to terify others who contemplated resistance. (Surrender was always the safest course with the mongols and several minor peopls were to survive with nothing worse than the payment of tribute and arrival of a mongol governor.) Transoxiana never recovered its place in the life of Islamic Iran after this. Christian civilization was given a taste of Mongol prowess by the defeat of the georgians in 1221 and of the southern Russian princes two years later. Even these alarming events were only the overture to what was to follow. Chinghis died in the east in 1227, but his son and successor returned to the west after completing the conquest of northern China. In 1236 his armies poured into russia. They took kiev and settled on the lower Volga, from which they organized a tributary system for the russian principalities they had not occupied.
They drove one young Mongol to extremes of bitterness and self-assertion. The date of his birth is uncertain, but in the 1190s he became khan to his people. A few years later he was supreme among the mongol tribes and was acknoledged as such by being bgiven the title of Chinghis Khan. By an Arabis corruption of this name he was to become known in Europe as Genghis Khan. He extended his power over other peoples in central Asia and in 1215 defeated (thought he did not overthrow) the chin state in northern china and Manchuria. This was only the beginning.
By the time of his dead, in 1227, he had become the greatest conquerer the world has ever known. He seem unlike all earlier nomad warlords. Chinghis genuinely believed he had a mission to conquer the world. Conquest, not booty or settlement, was his aim and what he conquered he often set about organizing in a systematic way. This lead to a structure which deserves the name empire more than do most of the nomadic polities. He was superstitious, tolerant of religions other than his own paganism, and, said a persian historian, used to hold in esteem beloved and respected sages and hermits of every tribe, considering this a procedure to please god. Indead, he seems to have held that he was himself the recipient of a divine mission. This religious electicism was of the first importantce, as was the fact that he and his followers (except for some turks who joined them) were not Moslem, as the seljuks had been when they arrived in the near East.
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I dont want my children to be sick only because they are living in ger areas. While people migrate to the capital to seek shortage a share of the growth the country is undergoing, it also puts the city under environmental stress. International organizations including Millennium Challenge corporation (mcc asian development Bank, japan International cooperation Agency (jica european Bank for short Reconstruction and development, donor funds implemented by the deutsche gesellschaft für Internationale zusammenarbeit (giz undp/unep, the netherlands, France, korea as well as the world Bank are working. Taking Action, with the support of the world Bank, the government of). Mongols Essay, research Paper, twlfth-century mongolia is as far back as a search for their origins need. A group of peopls speaking the languages of the family called Mongol who had long demanded the attention of Chinese governments then lived there. Generally, china played off one of them against another in the interests of its own security. They were barbarians, not much different in their cultural level from others who have already crossed these pages. Two tribes among them, the tatars and that which became known as the mongols, competed and on the whole the tatars had the best.
Story highlights * Mongolias capital Ulaanbaatar is one the worlds most polluted cities its harmful dust is 6-7 times higher than the most lenient World health Organization standards. Luckily, the issue is drawing more attention International organizations including the world Bank are working with the mongolian government to find solutions. A newly-launched project will help local residents install more energy-efficient stoves and boilers make the urban district heating system more eco-friendly. Related, world bank * Download Report: sales Air quality Analysis of show more content. Ulaanbaatars air pollution comes from many sources dust from the desert, unpaved roads and open soil surfaces, lack of vegetation, ash and emissions from coal stoves, power plants, boilers, and vehicles But coal and wood burning by the 175,000 households in ger areas for cooking. "Today, children are suffering from many unfamiliar illnesses caused by air pollution. As a mother i am very worried about my childrens health and my neighbors newborns, gerelchimeg says.
effective as domestic legislation upon the entry into force of the laws or on their ratification or accession. Principle of respect of law became the supreme principle of the activities of the State. However, this does not mean legal despotism, but rather a respect and adherence to universally recognized laws, abiding by a new legal awareness and legal protection of the interest of the individual. The court shall be independent and subject to law. Establishing a judicial supervision system over the implementation of the constitution, it founded a special Constitutional court. Thank you for your attention. Recommended, free mongolia map, mongolia map, mongolia powerPoint Map, mongolia editable map, mongolia map template, mongolia outline map, mongolia political map, mongolia location map, mongolia province map. Presentations public Speaking, view more. Show More, mongolian air pollution, in Mongolias capital, air pollution is 6-7 times higher than the most lenient World health Organization standards.
In the preamble of the constitution, it is stated, Aspiring toward the supreme objective of developing a human, civil, democratic society in the country. Human rights and freedom are accepted as the highest value. The State shall be responsible to the citizens for the creation of economic, social, legal and other guarantees for ensuring human rights and freedoms, to right against violations of human rights and freedoms and to restore infringed rights. Sovereignty and legitimacy will reside with the people. State power shall be vested in the people of Mongolia. All forms state and private ownership were recognized and are equally writing protected. The State recognizes all forms of both public and private property and shall protect the rights of the owner by law. State power is exercised based on the allocation of legislative, executive and judiciary power. Pluralism and a multiparty system are recognized and no particular ideology shall be declared as that of the state or mandatory.
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Essay of mongolia, home, social Media, essay of mongolia. Download, report, description resume ntent: mongolian Democratic revolution of 1990 new Constitution of Mongolia in 1992. Mongolian Democratic revolution of 1990. Constitution of Mongolia. Transcript ntent: mongolian Democratic revolution of 1990 new Constitution of Mongolia in 1992. Representation of Mongolian people, with it's 430 members adopted new Constitution. The constitution of Mongolia reflects the following principles and concepts:.