No recycling of Water moisture from the oceans fall as rain on adjacent coastal regions. The moisture is soon sent up to the atmosphere through the transpiration of foliage to fall again on inland forest areas. This cycle repeats several times to rain on all forest regions. Less Carbon dioxide and Nitrogen Exchange The rainforests are important in the carbon dioxide exchange process. They are second only to oceans as the most important "sink" for atmospheric carbon dioxide. The most recent survey on deforestaiton and greenhouse gas emisions reports that deforestation may account for as much as 10 of current greenhouse gas emmisions.
Afforestation, essay - 699 Words
Climate Change When an area of rainforest is either cut down or destroyed, there are various climate changes that happen as a result. The following is a list of the various climate changes with a brief description of why they come about. Desication of previously moist forest soil What happens is because of the exposure to the sun, the soil gets baked and the lack of canopy leaves nothing to prevent the moisture from quickly evaporating into the atmosphere. Thus, previously moist soil becomes dry and cracked. Dramatic Increase in Temperature Extremes Trees provide shade and the shaded area has a moderated temperature. With shade, the temperature may be 98 degrees Farenheit during the day and 60 degrees at night. With out the shade, temperatures would be much colder during the night and around 130 degrees during the day. Moist Humid Region Changes to desert This is related to the desicaiton of previously moist forest soil. Primarily because of the lack of moisture and the inability to keep moisture, soil that is exposed to the sun will dry and turn into desert sand. Even before that happens, when the soil becomes dry, dust storms become more frequent. At that point, the soil becomes usesless.
Provides forest products With an increase in demand for forest and timber products, afforestation is very valuable due to the umum explosion of livestock and human population. For that reason, construction of infrastructure has led to the demand of forest products. Stabilizes the climate Planting of trees in semi-arid areas attracts rainfall. This way, agricultural practices such as irrigation are carried out efficiently. In addition, afforestation acts as a catchment for water and soil conservation.(5).effect of deforestation when forests are killed, nature basically requires people to renew the forest. Reforestation is one concept that is in the opposite direction as deforestation, but is proven to be a much harder effort than deforestation. So the rate of deforestation has not been offset by the rate of reforestation. Thus, the world is now in a troubled state when it comes to issues concerning the environment.
Here are the main benefits of afforestation. Afforestation is useful especially metamorphosis when it comes to protecting the wildlife. According resume to recent scientific studies, upland forest vegetation tends to affect the population of birds on neighboring unplanted moorlands. Planting of trees simply restores and maintains ecological balance of all systems in the environment. Tourist attraction, trees provide oxygen and also help to preserve ecological splendor of the landscape which in turn attracts tourists from all parts of the world. Minimizes soil erosion soil erosion is significantly reduced as tree plantations prevent run off after heavy rains. In addition, trees bring soils together which prevents soil erosion.
This practice is due to an agro-silvo-pastoral culture wich includes positive elements and is therefore difficult to condemn. Solutions can not be looked for without taking into account the subsistence requirements of those populations concerned. Benefits of aforestation, afforestation refers to the conversion of wasteland into a woodland or forest. It is essentially the transformation of land which has not been forested for a period of more than 40 year to woodland through seeding and planting. Afforestation is the best technique used to minimize the greenhouse effect. Therefore, there is constant necessity to develop afforestation programs in order to preserve and protect the forestry including the wasteland. A massive afforestation program is required to meet the increasing demand of fuel wood, timber and fodder.
Essay on, afforestation : meaning, Advantages, Importance
In Europe, figures gathered by the fao permit one to establish the area of the forest burnt annually between 19,. During the same period North America lost some.5 million hectares of forest to fires. That percentage attribued to human causes being around 97 in Europe, 91 in the United States and 66 in Canada. Very little is known concerning the equivalent information for the entire world. The total wooded surface touched by fire annually is around 10 million hectares, which represents some.3 of the total world forested area. However the impact of these fires is more important than this small percentage suggests.
In fact, in the zones where the frequence of fires is high, the destructive character of such fires is worsened by the fact that forest stands do not have the time to reconstitute themselves between the passage eat of two consecutive fires.Â. An Integrated policy for the prevention and fighting of fires. The methods of fighting fires must be adapted to the socio-cultural environment in which they are put into place. Developed countries, developed countries possess the necessary materials to permit them to carry out a "No-fire" policy in order to satisfy public opinion, which is generally very sensitive to this form of threat to the natural environment. In this case, a perfect coordination between terrestrial and aerial fire fighting means must be provided, in addition to the active participation of the public and private forestry sectors, for example, in the participation of preventive operations and detective procedures.Â. Developing countries, in developing countries or in natural regions wich are less densely populated, one must accept that a part of the wooded surface will be burnt.
In quebec, the pine shoot moth periodically attacks the annual shoots of (Abies balsamea and Picea glauca) as in the whole of the north East of North America. This indigenous insect reaches epidemic proportions roughly every thirty years. The last infestation (1938-1958) provoked the death of 60 of Firs and 20 of Spruces. At the end of 1975, an epidemic breakout covered 35 million ha of quebec. Fires:-Fire has always been an element present in many forestry ecosystems. Natural causes of fire exist such as lightening and volcanic eruptions.
The area subjected to natural fires has been very important and can cover millions of hectares. However the lapse of time is generally long between successive fires, permitting the ecosystem to recover and reconstitute itself.Â. Large fires have always ravaged the surface of the earth. In the north of China,.33 million ha went up in flames in 1987 ; more than.5 million ha were burnt in Kalimantan (Borneo) between 19in 1988, 400.000 ha were destroyed by fire in the United States in yellow stone national park. Recently in 1993, considerable damage was done by an enormous fire in Australia. The importance of human factor, the main causes of contemporary fires and anthropogenic : This is the case with the recurrent fires in the european Mediterranean zone, or those fires provoked in tropical humid zones, which have their goal the clearing of land for agriculture. In dry tropical zones with mixed broadleaved forests and rich undergrowth, human populations have always used fire to make way for grazing and agriculture.
Essay on Forest Conservation and, afforestation
The examples of diseases filsafat and illnesses caused by pathogens are unfortunately numerous and only a few will be outlined. These illnesses develop, either as moliere a result of native pathogenic activity, or by the invasion of the non-native agents in non-resistant stands. Robredo and Cadahia drew up a very complete table of the world situation concerning this problem during the tenth world forestry congress, from wich the following text is largely inspired (in collectif. the forest, inheritance of the future - acts of the tenth forestry congress. french forestry revue. In North Africa, natural cedar stands are attacked by xylophitic insects, during periods of climatic stress. In Spain,Â Abies pinsapoÂ is subjected to combined attacks of theFungiÂ Fomes annosus, and xylophitic and cortical perforating insects. In Europe, dieback can be observed amongst various oak species, most notably, the cork oak and evergreen oak (attacks ofÂ DiplodiaÂ andHypoxilon).
Against such freak winds forestry management has very little power. However, although foresters are unable to prevent such catastrophes, they have the power to limit the destruction of violent winds by favouring the development of stands that are more wind resistant, and by adopting a prudent and diverse outlook towards management. Periods of drought, water stress renders forestry stands very fragile. They can arise either by a change in the distribution of water throughout the seasons, for the same quantity of annual precipitation (the supply therefore being brought forward in relation to the demand of forest stands or by a fall in the annual volume. It has now been established that the numerous cases of dieback observed in forests supply stands throughout the world in the last ten years (which at the time were entirely blamed on atmospheric pollution) are due in part, to periodic water stress. In fact, those observations realised concern those forests in regions subjected to strong pollution fall out, but also forests of less affected regions. Biotic Threats, diseases and the attack of insects : brief overview of the situationÂ. Insects and fungi play an important part towards the causes of dieback in many forests of the world.Â. These biotic agents intervene, either as primary agressors, or most often as secondary agressors, often attacking already weakened stands.
future climatic changes, due to the consequences of green house gases from industrial pollution are going to grow. It is sufficient to study here not the ways of fighting these aggressions, but those measures to take before forestry stands are subjected to these events.Â. Forests are submitted more than any other terrestrial ecosystem to climatic hazards, due to the duration of their maturity, wich can take up to 200 years. In such a period the number of climatic hazards can be great. Storms and win-blow, storms have had an important destructive effect throughout this century, especially throughout the last twenty five years in Europe, destroying millions of m3 of wood, the following - 1990, almost 110 million m3 destroyed throughout Europe.â - 1999, 140 million. These anarchic destructions greatly perturb cutting cycles and general forestry work. Delaying The development of the forest and disrupting the wood market.
This occurs on a much larger scale for intensive or modern agriculture. Large cattle pastures often replace rain forest to grow beef. Commercial logging - the cutting down of trees for sale as timber online or pulp. In the developed world, there are increasing demands for hardwoods such as mahogany and ebony. The rate at which trees are felled is increasing to meet these demands. People in third world countries need the timber for firewood, as it's practically the only source of fuel available to people living there. The heavy machinery used (e.g.
Afforestation in India, essay and Advantages
Print, reference this, published: 23rd March, 2015 24th July, 2017. Keywords: aforestation, afforestation benefits, forests are threatened by both biotic and a-biotic factors such as climatic hazards, diseases prompted by insects or pathogens, threats of a purely anthropogenic nature, fires, atmospheric pollution, deforastation, and the increase in social pressures.Â. But this classic division is a bit artificial, since man is partly responsible for all these threats.Â Indeed the mark of human actions is always present : it is however relatively moderate concerning climatic disorder despite the emissions of greenhouse gases, responsible for important destructions ;. These aggressions will therefore be classed by groups but keeping an effort essays to maintain classification by growing order of mans implications, and therefore the possibility of theoretical intervention will also increase. Agricultural purposes, grazing cattle or planting crops. Poor farmers in developing countries chop down a small area of trees and burn them, which provide nutrients for the soil (know as the 'slash-and-Burn' technique). This supply is quickly exhausted so the farmers move on to a fresh area, and the cycle starts again.